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Andrew C. Butler  
Postdoctoral Research Scholar
The Rubin Lab / The Marsh Lab

Advisors: Dr. David C. Rubin / Dr. Elizabeth J. Marsh

Office Phone: 919.660.5637
email: andrew.butler@duke.edu

Duke University
Psychology & Neuroscience
Box 90086
Durham, NC 27708-0086



I am interested in the malleability of memory – the cognitive processes and mechanisms that cause memories to change or remain stable over time. My research focuses on how the process of retrieving memories affects the content (e.g., events, specific details, narrative structure, etc.) and phenomenological characteristics (e.g., confidence, emotional intensity, vividness, etc.) of those memories. Retrieval is often viewed as a neutral event in which the contents of memory are assessed but left unchanged. However, a large body of research has shown that retrieval actually modifies memory (see Roediger & Butler, 2011). This finding is exciting because it gives rise to a different perspective about the critical factors that determine what we know and remember. Although the vast majority of memory research has focused on the process of encoding, it is repeated retrieval that shapes our memories over time.

Articles (Researcher ID / Google Scholar)

• Szekely, S., Jacobsen, T., D Amico, S., Devescovi, A., Andonova, E., Herron, D., Lu, C.,Pechmann, T., Pl eh, C., Wicha, N., Federmeier, K., Gerdjikova, I., Gutierrez, G., Hung, D., Hsu, J., Iyer, G., Kohnert, K., Mehotcheva, T., Orozco-Figueroa, A., Tzeng, A., Tzeng, O., Ar evalo, A., Vargha, A., Butler, A. C., Buffington, R., & Bates, E. (2004). A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 247-250.

• Bulevich, J. B., Roediger, H. L., III, Balota, D. A., & Butler, A. C. (2006). Failures to find suppression of episodic memories in the think/no-think paradigm. Memory & Cognition, 34, 1569-1577.

• Butler, A. C., Marsh, E. J., Goode, M. K.,  & Roediger, H. L., III (2006). When additional multiple-choice lures aid versus hinder later memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 941-956.

• Butler, A.C., & Roediger, H.L., III (2007). Testing improves long-term retention in a simulated classroom setting. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 514-527.

• Arevalo, A. L., Perani, D., Cappa, S. F., Butler, A. C., Bates, E., & Dronkers, N. (2007). Action and object processing in aphasia: From nouns and verbs to the effect of manipulability. Brain and Language, 100, 79-94.

• Butler, A. C., Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., III (2007). The effect of type and timing of feedback on learning from multiple-choice tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13, 273-281.

• Butler, A.C., & Roediger, H.L., III (2008). Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Memory & Cognition, 36, 604-616.

• Butler, A. C., Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., III (2008). Correcting a meta-cognitive error: Feedback enhances retention of low confidence correct responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 918-928.

• Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., III (2008). Test-enhanced learning in medical education. Medical Education, 42, 959-966.

• Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., III (2009). Do students practice retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17, 471-479.

• Butler, A. C., Zaromb, F., Lyle, K. B., & Roediger, H. L., III (2009). Using popular films to enhance classroom learning: The good, the bad, and the interesting. Psychological Science, 20, 1161-1168.

• Butler, A. C., Kang, S. H. K., & Roediger, H. L., III (2009). Congruity effects between materials and processing tasks in the survival processing paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 1477–1486.

• Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., III (2009). Repeated testing improves long-term retention relative to repeated study: A randomized, controlled trial. Medical Education, 43, 1174–1181.

• Butler, A. C. (2010). Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 1118-1133.

• Roediger, H. L., III, & Butler, A. C. (2011). The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Cognitive Science, 15, 20-27.

• Butler, A. C., Fazio, L. F., & Marsh, E. J. (2011). The hypercorrection effect persists over a week, but high confidence errors return. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1238-1244.

• Butler, A. C., Dennis, N. A., & Marsh, E. J. (2012). Inferring facts from fiction: Reading correct and incorrect information affects memory for related information. Memory, 20, 487-498.

• Umanath, S., Butler, A. C., & Marsh, E. J. (2012). Positive and negative effects of monitoring popular films for historical inaccuracies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 556-567.

• Marsh, E. J., Butler, A. C., & Umanath, S. (2012). Using fictional sources in the classroom: Applications from cognitive psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 449-469.

• Butler, A. C., Godbole, N., & Marsh, E. J. (2013). Explanation feedback is better than correct answer feedback for promoting transfer of learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 290-298.

• Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., III (2013). Comparative effects of test-enhanced learning and self-explanation on long-term retention. Medical Education, 47, 674–682.

• Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., Lawson, A. L., & Roediger, H. L., III (2013). The importance of seeing the patient: Test-enhanced learning with standardized patients and written tests improves clinical application of knowledge. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18, 409-425.

• Zaromb, F., Butler, A. C., Agarwal, P. K., & Roediger, H. L., III (2014). Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 42, 383-399.

• Butler, A. C., Marsh, E. J., Slavinsky, J. P., & Baraniuk, R. G. (2014). Integrating cognitive science and technology improves learning in a STEM classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 331-340.

• Mullet, H. G., Butler, A. C., Verdin, B., von Borries, R., & Marsh, E. J. (2014). Delaying feedback promotes transfer of learning in a STEM classroom. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 3, 222-229.


• Roediger, H. L., III, Zaromb, F., & Butler, A. C. (2009). The role of repeated retrieval in shaping collective memory. In P. Boyer and J. V. Wertsch (Eds.), Memory in mind and culture (pp. 29-58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

• McDaniel, M. A., & Butler, A. C. (2010). A contextual framework for understanding when difficulties are desirable. In A. S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: A festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 175-198). New York: Psychology Press.

• Roediger, H. L., III, & Butler, A. C. (2011). Paradoxes of remembering and knowing. In N. Kapur, A. Pascual-Leone, & V. Ramachandran (Eds.), The paradoxical brain (pp. 151-176). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

• Roediger, H. L., III, & Butler, A. C. (2013). Retrieval practice (testing) effect. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind (pp. 660-661). Los Angles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

• Marsh, E. J., & Butler, A. C. (2013). Memory in educational settings. In D. Reisberg (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 299-317). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

• Larsen, D. P., & Butler, A. C. (2013). Test-enhanced learning. In Walsh, K. (Ed.), Oxford Textbook of Medical Education (pp. 443-452). Oxford: Oxford University Press.