Tú'Ec/@2?xc^J\@` t?4F빾2QPM4:NO/*H=kD:ٴB31Bi'8Ϯ?Z5TJWE8*Np?4!YBV=o QuO!Ɨ;{҅o`?qڐ #<{6@\u9=Jsv(¿qdu8jLG= 檺 6㑀q4Up''?VM;?΅XgtJIC}B$ʂԮנZ!@_E  ?^vENPNF ?[-4߮?F:BKQ6_NH V%xa_C VhO,`Ԃy'=yֲ`esVȪWZ4İ$ ,Ϸ*dIsX铟oZ˒W\=ZXC*Vwv/uKĞl(FHg瑊|/ ^fQ !).3 3ןJ7Ym]zu<ݿL&ABONW,:׉M scxI߬(jǶNjreNyn;b )hݹ$P\%EYjt1YʔT/%K"Qմ!kYOe9 rGb^÷IX01J^ǥChR_d-xON}(P~!3~a=G?º5"⺌mU?S+3wܛ->\f0A?J -Us{:H]1#OFl?$S@'4XR…9P?51RݴAdХ P#4Fusލ+n7 O06M qMv,ZtM^#Ma _Hcۓ_H$/OMk\֯ua ;883 U+-3KwK۴lFH(8rE.TV컛]A+ԭy4]ig#`'99^e`tYm7s$sXEOoo_vhĚs-Q3\J!`1 F;cUьHw:ehK9SN)?鶝)rOuiuuQY4OzaH B'AQ\@{'fSzWE:Κ\W#zWR][ vV6@:8+d{qix p,i6 v~ԬǹmKPOL"$QGcp?^8W\+/qhŒ0@_N %\1?J__֚oOhD}#(OM4a|:Q%z}?4rr'N;x:(K& ~粂h#J|aU% ?sn0E\7+{n;NG朘T`NsKQ>Y@,pzOL'=󜁎?j-#hq֣OF09lYjzIu;#/{>vǜsXC▖wvfR剿jdvhYJAQb=H tX#\xU-hm^L9=1\jf۳nzcZZF"ɾ G*)t5kc1Vy5-a%{_]7Q>.͗Km N.~FgaB!GۺHTxFOaߥkNR^JO 9.ny-3$=p>Q'bJ)a*5h^3(M/ȣz̓ #Aӎ8@k+M_W r r1{qVM1cLMFNQ8揻a?$bwbEӜMt y/vPQ恌 ={ȾCo#R2z$n<)p@ q4kVGn #K1srq]1wNh9%}d7gAiAjy`Ӹ@=j6`1=J79ǰ>N+9A{+@`08>78=;R6svlczաL,Q =: =aV\ .-<'.dIEq$܎x=#81s5f)d̶*Kn'9=Hy%mu_G"/ca{uxs$FYK+ y28A^G7p1U &?n禂S ۽WJtSk|ƈ$"B[P˝$k%鯩tfy9j3AyHۃӐ;ֶԫr0=)Ussǩ~Kw@N1ֆo)aFzN98(ӲHs֐ޘ9ښO ݍ(';=Bvj&pおc9zҿd? ӭ&8%H[$w$ZA) r'`_ 8 $SaN?WaZۍϹF zzoQj@{aTz}߮1RZ[wv+}}ri$vZm֗XfUy C¤͜qqnKuAiapG!6kt[]w}~^V717ٞ VTIJYJ9*A 2>ú՝ɦ]3dGciHriZOU-?6z?_ѣj6$vࡑ@= #\#wR]cRUa'#=:P<dOZyʾbxH9JWo񏧯ސFywvw߷OAe8}kGQM\gnK3١ 0֎nQs`d?&pF3`ʇ&K 8N)wGjK^oK_ߧ^z18n;1['k~ҌW_aq?֌n AN~Ҝ.dݗV VriBxkj(N:Q'9?4 'n1֞( W2B[#*F{H' QW :oJu t);!>G`GLTV-# WS-ƕeO}GTS$~Y L Cץ2o$ubk_oWWheoo3oQ=SLln${{6ٲ9R@sm֭~ů U16:;4{l裏u)Siqyd|s0Zz0w}y+0?@0KA5rycV..G psI9cy߽,4߮T9''K]{:lҶhPֵ)/XZsp#ERcz1;쉋Q 7ykkdy|u>mB[O¨N:F'k+r*=Zz#'Ҕ'OhMZõ0=/){~M" 6ՋʐW8?Y%kp:*sf+[P?7<&$Nv\Gp(8qM 0;ARe}?X:=ODMp8_ޙKc>[ 9#Ҏ` ПE4Vu@GΚqNkQs=qWRvVOcU CK|I;~>i#<КB~[ ǷQ9#Oڞ;01iT ]Z\'9=_Q `OO)H8?zL 2j:Pp[ 0x4;YӬ3Mqg8, c*pz'$2^)iӦ/[*w:cXXY;]䀼=S+{Eoe=\5КҶUЧ3.ek#8S:{NF@?ӮҩaO 8l[dq81Ȥ8iYZj )?R鏧يH8?ZRKv&$`I H)Pq6{sR!zm#Kv?M r;208-EsI08?IF/,>iOS&iZ á-ly"x':W3mqiyi|GaXSVv59m2yy4YI>'^N1ǦIp8z_Opv?Jqe!18?d=@?Z7 :XWcr6O#w `>@i#=M+wqۻ8zdujj( F )Cp }?+$ūow'44[.OF[S20 9z2{t` sG ?ڇcdv>j35IYP8@ [6 ^p~t7G9dm zē87d?FQx?BՋ]ةw<lr]69_‼sӦ;ʞO'??h`֋_QY~\p\v$ҔCH8 qҎ21g皭@T9NHSkl=V0|yڂ9W{ E/+F@0GJ0 ݓ?'Fڅ`@F w;Y\,/Q;~v-y$0h/|u_qP7 p;u՝C;6 do>oh`0rr:c;H6??Ȩ;>Soq:v >qT~_?)./9E9~O|?fbnAzr1}iNv*VlnSxVB~+0psi X CJ J. M. Roberts, A History of Europe

Outline of 
Roberts, A History of Europe
Book Six - Chapter I

Book Six: Europe in the Cold War and after

  • "Historical acceleration is a metaphor. It is very hard to measure what it means; though many statistical indexes might be employed to calibrate the pace of change, its most important aspect may well be subjective, inexpressible in numbers or measurements, a reality in the minds of men and women who more and more experienced disorientation, a sudden absence of familiar mental landmarks and psychological supports, a startling awareness that the world was not as it used to be. In this sense, it is impossible to exaggerate the acceleration of change since 1945. Men and women whose parents lived in societies still not much unlike those of their remote Stone Age ancestors have seen children grow up with a familiarity with the world of the computer incomprehensible to them. People born before the first heavier-than-air man-carrying flight have watched men walk about the surface of the moon. Scores of new nations have come into being within a few years of one another, and as they did old empires swiftly crumbled.

 "Europe's last multi-national empire crumbled very fast indeed between 1989 and 1991, and with it what had long been for Europeans (and many non-Europeans, too) a central fact of life for nearly half a century: the Cold War. That supreme fact more than any other casts doubt upon the feasibility of writing an intelligible history of Europe in the post-war years, for it was a global struggle, determining much of Europe's fate, but always transcending it. There has to be more account taken of the non- European world in this last Book than in any of those which precede it. The ending of the Cold War does not remove that difficulty. Strenuous efforts have been made to construct an entity which can be meaningfully called 'Europe' in recent years, but the history of the continent however it is defined cannot after 1945 be separated comprehensibly from the history of the of the globe."[505]

I. Europe in the aftermath of war

A. The dwarfing of Europe
    1. Prescience of Alexis de Tocqueville century earlier: Americans and the Russians each marked out "to sway the destinies of half the globe." [507] - fate of Europe shaped by decisions in Moscow and Washington after WWII
    2. "Hitler's decision of 1941 to go to war with the USSR and USA were to turn out to be the last taken by a European for many years which would change the history of the whole continent." [507]
    3. Whatever the historic Russia and the USA owed to Europe or reflected of it in their behaviour (and both were at least formally founded on ideologies European in origin) their concerns were also different and global. Geography alone settled that." [507]
    4. Shift in world power relationships - begun in 1905.
    5. UN in SF 1945 same day US and USSR met at Elbe.
      a.majority of 49 original members were outside Europe [508]
      b. Security Council permanent: US, USSR, United Kingdom, France, China
B. The new balance of power
    1. Only two great powers left in 1945
    2. All European nations faced grave problems
    3. Outside USSR 14,000,000 Europeans dead
    4. In USSR 20,000,000 dead [508[
    5. "Civilized society had given way no only under the horrors of Nazi warfare, but also because occupation had transformed lying, swindling, cheating and stealing into acts of virtue; they were not only necessary to survival, but were legitimized as acts of 'resistance'." [509]
    6. New hatreds, firing squads followed liberation
    7. European economic life had disintegrated.
C. The post-war USSR
    1. preponderance of Soviet land power in eastern and central Europe [510]
    2. Soviet armies on borders of Turkey and Greece
    3. Stalin's' decision to develop nuclear weapons
D. The United States and post-war Europe
    1. Pacific Ocean had become an American lake
    2.overwhelming industrial power [510]
    3. standard of living rose during WWII [511]
E. Cold War origins
    1. 1945 - most powerful nation on earth was strangely unwilling to use its power in Europe [512]
    2. Stalin wanted Germany governed jointly
    3. but wanted to ensure against German recover - led to separate policies - ultimately separate Germanies
    4. Churchill spoke in US in 1946 about "iron curtain"
    5. 1947 GB used up American loan of 1945 - 1946 bread rationing
    6.GB withdrew forces from Greece - US must fill gap
    7. US financial aid to Greece and Turkey [514]
    8. US offered the 'free peoples' of the world American leadership to resist, with American help, 'attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.' [514]
F. The Marshall Plan
    1.offer of American economic aid to European nations , which would plan jointly their economic recovery [514]
    2.USSR would not allow satellites to participate
    3.Sept. 1947 - Cominform denounced American imperialism
    4.i.e. Cold War was underway
G. The liquidation of empire
    1.emergence of nations no committed to either side - many new nations
    2.UN General Assembly - platform for anti-colonial propaganda
    3.Remaining empires in 1945
      a.USSR
      b.Great Britain
      c.France
      d.Belgium
      e.Netherlands
      f.Portugal
      g.Spain
    4.Next 25 yrs all empires liquidated
    5.India - 1946 GB offered independence
      a.August 1947 Pakistan and India - Dominions of Commonwealth
    6.China - 1949 People's Republic of China
    7.Indonesia - 1949
    8.Vietnam -
H. The post-war Middle East
    1.1939
      a.French mandates in Syria and Lebanon
      b.British in Palestine, Iraq, and Egypt
    I. Israel and the Cold War
      1.Balfour declaration of 1917 - in Palestine
        a.600,000 arabs
        b.80,000 Jews
      2.USSR and US supported Jews
      3.1948 GB asked UN - UN recommended partition
      4.May 14, 1948 Israel proclaimed itself a state
    J. Europe divided: the first crisis
      1.US and GB merged occupations zones for economic purposes
      2.June 1948 currency reform in western zones
      3.Blockade of Berlin - airlift
        a.continued for a year
        b.US willing to risk fighting USSR [522]
      4.USSR - barriers to movement between sectors of Berlin
    K. The beginnings of European political integration
      1.about nature of Europe as a whole
      2.nationalism stigmatized
      3.Britain - Scandinavia and Ireland - inter- governmental cooperation for defined and specific ends
      4.European governments - supra-national integration - to European Parliament
      5.April 1949 NATO - included US and Canada
      6.May 23 1949 German Federal Republic - Adenauer
      7.October 1949 German Democratic Republic - east [523]
Outline of Book Five, Chapter I, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Five, Chapter II, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Five, Chapter III, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Five, Chapter IV, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Five, Chapter V, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Six, Chapter I, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Six, Chapter II, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Six, Chapter III, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Outline of Book Six, Chapter IV, of Roberts, A History of Europe
Links and Abbreviations (links are abbreviated by using the initials)
Home Questions History/Music Prophetic Arts World Now Broadening Interdependence
Roberts Spengler Modernity Art History Music History Music Timeline Arts Timeline