Hybrid -  

How a new art has been created by combining cultures.

African influences - Class Notes

Two Worlds:   "Introduction:  Africa, Europe, and Islam, " xxi-xxxvii
Stretch:  Blacks, Whites, and the Minstrel Stage:  30.  Negro Minstrelsy, 123; Anonymous, “Negro Minstrels on the Western Rivers, by One Who Has Been There” (1852), 125 
Stretch:   South versus North:  Slavery and the Civil War:  50.  The Music of Slavery:  William Wells Brown, from My Southern Home (1880), (207+), 209 
Stretch: 52.  Voices of Abotition, 214
Crossroads:  Chapter 4, The Roots of African American Music, 58-74
Two Songs from The Anti-Slavery Harp (1854), (215+), 216 describes Negro music; 
William Francis Allen, from Slave Songs of the United States (1867), 217 
MUSIC:  Xylophone of Bapende Zaire

American black music

Two Worlds:  5.  North American Strains:  from Spirituals to Blues, (157-211), 193+. 
RC 27.  Blues, Jazz, and a Rhapsody:  The Jazz Age Dawns,  344-5 
77.    W. C. Handy:  Memphis, Mr. Crump, and the Blues:  W. C. Handy, from Father of the Blues:  An Autobiography (1943), 335; 
78.  Ragtime:  Joplin, Berlin, and J. R. Europe, 340; 
Monroe H. Rosenfeld,  “The King of Ragtime Composers Is Scott Joplin” (1903), 341; 
Scott Joplin, form School of Ragtime (1908), 342; 
From “Great Composers Get Little; Popular Writers Well Paid”  (1911), 342; 
“Ragtime by U. S. Army Band Gets Everyone ‘Over There’” (1928), 343; 
80.    Louis Armstrong Remembers New Orleans, 348: 
Louis Armstrong, from A Self-PortraitI (1966), 348) 
CMMC Jelly Roll Morton: "Sweet, Soft, Plenty Rhythm" from Mister Jelly Roll 254
Crossroads:  Chapter 6, The Blues, 97-117
SCOTT JOPLIN - Biography
MUSIC:  Scott Joplin, "Maple Leaf Rag," 1899 
Performed by Scott Joplin 
Performed by Jelly Roll Morton
7/9, 10, 11

Jazz - Class Notes 

Early Jazz

Two Worlds:  6.  "U. S. Black Dance Music:  'People' Music Becomes 'Classical,'" (213-240), 217+, 223+.
(RC:  30.   From New Orleans to Chicago:  Jazz Goes National,  pp. 382-92)
Classic Essays :  Gunther Schuller:  "Jazz" ( 1976) , 321-333
Crossroads:  Chapter 7, Jazz, 119-143

MUSIC:  RC 2:19.  Louis Armstrong, "West End Blues," 1928 
Ellington Biography  Class Notes
Others: pp. 70-73 
CMMC:  Duke Ellington: "Jazz for Young People:"  from Music Is My Mistress, 266-73
(Classic Essays :  Gunther Schuller:  "Jazz" (1976) , p. 321-333 )
MUSIC:  Norton Recordings Ellington, Ko-Ko
Later Jazz - Class Notes
Exotic:   Gunther Schuller, “Jazz and Musical Exoticism," 281-91. 
MUSIC:    3:12  Charlie Parker, "Parker's Mood," 1948 
MUSIC:  3:13  John Coltrane, "Welcome," 1965 
MUSIC:  Coltrane, Summertime

Gershwin  -Class Notes 

Jews:  Tin Pan Alley, Irving Berlin 
    Gershwin, Porgy and Bess
Stretch:  George Gershwin:  Stretching the Boundaries, 353-56. 
Pyramids:  "Take the 'A' Train," 195-202. 
Others:   Richard Middleton, “Musical Belongings,” 66-70
(RC:  27.  "Blues, Jazz, and a Rhapsody," 351-355)
MUSIC:   RC 2:13, George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue, 1924
7/16 Popular music - Elvis    Class Notes
(RC:  34.  "Rock Around the Clock":  The Rise of Rock and Roll,  438-447)
Others:  62-3
Crossroads:  Chapter 12, The Ethnic and Racial Roots of Rock 'n' Roll, 199-209
MUSIC:  Bill Haley, "Rock around the Clock," Fats Domino, "Ain't That a Shame"
Elvis Presley, "Jailhouse Rock"