This line of resarch combines papers focused on explaining the adoption of, changes to, and characteristics of competition law and policy in developing countries (the "causes" of competition law and policy) with papers focused on explaining variations in outcomes as a function of the adoption, characteristics, or variation in implementation of competition law and policy in developing countries (the "consequences").
The research on the causes of competition law and policy complements the work on diffusion. The primary objective here is to gain a greater, more in-depth understanding of the political-economy of competition law adoption and reform in specific contexts than is possible through large-N statistical analyses (given current data).  Papers in this line of research therefore focus on particular countries (and particular developing countries since there are good reasons to expect the political economy of antitrust law and competition policy adoption to differ systematically from the political economy of antitrust in advanced industrialized democracies).  In doing so, they relax the implicit assumption of the diffusion analyses that the development of competition regimes in developing countries has a common causal logic and hence a single explanation.
The research on the consequences of competition law and policy complements the work on political-economic effects.  It focuses, however, on the consequences of these legal norms and their implementation in developing countries, where many of the contextual factors that argualby enhance the effectiveness of competition law and policy—such as the "rule of law," a professional, largely Weberian bureaucracy, and a relatively stable political sytem—are diminished or absent.  Taking their presence for granted, as we do in research on the United States, Europe, and advanced industrialized democracies elsewhere, is clearly not appropriate, but neither does it seem appropriate to simply assume that developing countries are inhospitable for competition law and policy, as anecdotal evidence suggests that there is great variation across developing countries in the effectiveness or success of a competition policies.  A close analysis of the consequences of competition law and policy in several developing countries, using a consciously comparative approach, seeks a better understanding of the importance of these contextual factor and more generaly of the conditions under which competition law and policy in developing countries is more or less successful.