Back-end loan fund
A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from 4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a designated time period after purchase, such as one year, reducing the commission the longer the investor holds the shares. The formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or CDSC.
A market condition in which futures prices are lower in the distant delivery months than in the nearest delivery month. balance sheet Also called the statement of financial condition, a summary of the assets, liabilities, and owners' equity.
Balanced fund
An investment company that invests in both stocks and bonds.
Balloon maturity
Any principal due at maturity for a bond with a sinking fund requirement.
Bank discount basis
A convention used for quoting bids and offers for Treasury bills in terms of annualized yield based on a 360-day year.
Bankers acceptance
A security representing a bank's promise to repay a loan created in a commercial transaction in case the debtor fails to perform. Commonly used in international transactions.
Barbell strategy
A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated at two extremes.
BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN) factor model
A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in Berkeley, California, which is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to evaluate their money managers' performances.
Base interest rate
Related: Benchmark interest rate
Base probability of loss
The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.
Regarding a futures contract, the difference between the cash price and the futures price observed in the market.
Basis risk
The uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for price risk.
Basket trades
Program trades.
Before-tax profit margin
The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.
One who believes prices will move lower. Related: Bull
Bear Market
Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.
Bellwether issues
Related: benchmark issues.
The performance of a predetermined set of securities, for comparison purposes. Such sets may be based on published indexes or may be customized to suit an investment strategy.
Benchmark interest rate
Also called the base interest rate, the minimum interest rate that investors will demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. The yield to maturity offered on a comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").
Benchmark issues
Also called on-the-run or current coupon issues or bellwether issues. In the secondary market, the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.
The slope of the market model for the asset,which measures the degree to which the historical returns on the asset change systematically with changes in the market portfolio's return. Hence, beta is referred to as an index of that systematic risk due to general market conditions that cannot be diversified away.
Biased expectations theories
Related: Pure expectations theory.
A proposal to buy at a specified price. Related: Ask, Offer
A rapid and sharp price decline.
Black-Scholes option-pricing model
A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation of the stock return.
Block trade
A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of 10,000 shares of a given stock or that has a total market value of $200,000 or more.
An instrument in which the issuer (debtor/borrower) promises to repay to the lender/investor the amount borrowed plus interest over some specified period of time.
Bond-equivalent basis
The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.
Bond-equivalent yield
The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.
Bond indenture
The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of investors.
Bond indexing
Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.
A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio as well as the individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDPAR decomposes the return into those elements beyond the manager's control, such as the interest rate environment and client imposed duration policy constraints, and those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations, and individual bond selection.
Book value
The total owners' equity shown in the balance sheet.
Book value per share
The ratio of stockholders' equity to the average number of common shares. Book value per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation (and not necessarily market valuation).
A process of creating a theoretical spot rate curve, using one yield projection as the basis for the yield of the next maturity.
Bottom-up equity management style
A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic and market cycles and focuses instead on the analysis of individual stocks.
Break-even time
Related: Premium payback period
An individual who is paid a commission for executing customer orders. Either a Floor Broker who executes orders on the floor of the Exchange, or an Upstairs Broker who handles retail customers and their orders.
Broker loan rate
Related: Call money rate
A rapid and sharp price decline
One who expects prices to rise.
Bull market
Any market in which prices are in an upward trend. bull spread A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option and fiances this purchase by selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying.
Bulldog market
The foreign market in the United Kingdom.
Bullet contract
A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related: Window contract
Bullet strategy
A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly concentrated at one point on the yield curve.
Business risk
The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.
Busted convertible
Related: Fixed-income equivalent
Butterfly shift
A non-parallel shift in the yield curve involving the humpedness of the curve.
Buy-and-hold strategy
A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks once the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon. buy hedge See long hedge.
Buy in
To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: Evening up, Liquidation, Offset
Buy limit order
A conditional trading order that indicates that a security may be purchased only at the designated price or lower. Related: Sell limit order
Buy-side analyst
A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.
Buy on close
To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.
Buy on margin
A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares using the shares themselves as collateral.
Buy on opening
To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.

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