Immunization strategy
A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to immunize a portfolio against a general change in the rate of interest.
Implied repo rate
The rate that a seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date. Related: Cheapest to deliver issue
Implied volatility
The expected volatility in a stock's return derived from its option price, using an option-pricing model.
Income statement
A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.
Index and Option Market (IBM)
A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
Index warrant
A stock index option issued by either a corporate or sovereign entity as part of a security offering, and guaranteed by an option clearing corporation.
A passive instrument strategy consisting of the construction of a portfolio of stocks designed to track the total return performance of an index of stocks.
Indifference curve
The graphical expression of a utility function, where the horizontal axis measures risk and the vertical axis measures expected re-turn.
Inflation risk
Also called purchasing-power risk, the risk that changes in the real return the investor will realize after adjusting for inflation will be negative.
Information coefficient (IC)
The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.
Information costs
Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset. Related: Search costs
Information-motivated trades
Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent information not currently reflected in the stock's price.
Informationless trades
Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.
Initial margin requirement
When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the board of governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by the exchange.
Input-output tables
Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.
Institutional investors
Organizations that invest, including insurance companies, depository institutions, pension funds, investment companies, and endowment funds.
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world.
Insured bond
A municipal bond backed both by the credit of the municipal issuer and by commercial insurance policies.
Insured plans
Defined benefit pension plans that are guaranteed by life insurance products. Related: Non-insured plans
Intangible asset
A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Financial assets, also called financial instruments or securities, are intangible assets.
Interest coverage ratio
The ratio of the earnings available for paying the interest for a given year to the annual interest expense.
Interest rate agreement
An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined level (the strike rate).
Interest rate cap
Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.
Interest rate ceiling
Related: Interest rate cap
Interest rate floor
An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls below the strike rate.
Interest rate risk
For a bond, the risk that a rise in interest rates will decrease the bond's price. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.
Interest rate swap
A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount.
Intermarket sector spread
The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for issues of the same maturity.
Intermarket spread swaps
An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.
Internal market
The mechanisms for issuing and trading securities within a nation, including its domestic market and foreign market. Compare external market.
Internally efficient market
Operationally efficient market
Internal rate of return
Dollar-weighted rate of return
International Depositary Receipt (IDR)
A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more shares of the underlying stock of a foreign corporation that the bank holds in trust. The advantage of the IDR structure is that the corporation does not have to comply with all the regulatory issuing requirements of the foreign country where the stock is to be traded. The U.S. version of the IDR is the American Depositary Receipt (ADR).
International market
Related: See external market.
International Monetary Market (IMM)
A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)
A put option that has a strike price higher than the underlying futures price, or a call option with a strike price lower than the underlying futures price. For example, if the March COMEX silver futures contract is trading at $6 an ounce, a March call with a strike price of 550 would be considered in-the-money by $0.50 an ounce. Related: Put
Intramarket sector spread
The spread between two issues of the same maturity within a market sector. For instance, the difference in interest rates offered for five- year industrial corporate bonds and five-year utility corporate bonds.
Intrinsic value
The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-the-money has no intrinsic value. Related: In-the-Money
Inventory turnover
The ratio of the cost of goods sold to the average inventory for a year.
Inverted market
A futures market in which the nearer months are selling at price premiums to the more distant months. Related: Premium
Investment analysts
Related: Financial analysts
Investment grade
A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit ratrating companies. Related: High-yield bond
Investment income
The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets.
Investment management
Also called portfolio management and money management, the process of managing money.
Investment manager
Also called a portfolio manager and money manager, the individual who manages a portfolio of investments.
Investment value
Related: Straight value
The owner of a financial asset.
Investor's equity
The balance of a margin account. Related: Buying on margin, Initial margin requirement.
Invoice price
The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury bond is delivered.
A particular financial asset.
An entity that issues a financial asset.

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