Department of Political Science
Political Science 760S: Security, Peace, and Conflict
Tuesday & Thursday 11:45 AM - 1:00 PM
Perkins Library 307
Office Hours: Tuesday 3:00 - 4:00 PM & Thursday 10:30 - 11:30 AM
Objectives of the Seminar
The objectives of this course are: (1) to understand the scope and breadth of the theoretical literature that has defined the study of security, peace and conflict; (2) to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the theoretical paradigms represented in that literature; (3) to define specific research questions and issues that must be addressed by future research; and (4) to prepare students for preliminary examinations in Security, Peace, and Conflict. It is, of course, impossible to provide a comprehensive review of all the literatures relating to political violence in a single semester. The readings and discussions in this course seek to strike a balance between traditional works that define the evolution of the field and contemporary works that highlight the development of our knowledge and possible directions for future research. Because of the emphasis on our current state of knowledge about political violence, many of the materials in this course rely on technical tools (such as econometrics and formal theory). Students are expected to have some familiarity with these tools prior to enrolling in the course, but will also have the opportunity to improve their understanding of the application of these tools to the study of political violence during the semester.
Response Papers (20% of final grade): In order to encourage active thinking about the readings and discussion in class, students will write two brief commentaries (2 pages maximum, single-spaced) on the readings for a particular week. Students should seek in these notes to engage one or more themes in the works, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and suggest future research questions facing that area of the literature. Students will sign up for their weeks at the first class meeting of the seminar. The papers will be circulated electronically to the entire class, and will be due at 9:00 a.m. on the relevant class day. You can email the entire class through the blackboard website.
Class Participation (10% of the final grade): Students will be expected to come to class fully prepared to engage in a robust, informed discussion of the readings and the problems for the field of international relations raised by the readings.
Literature or Book Review (25% of the final grade): The readings on this syllabus can only serve as a starting point from which students will engage additional important literature. Students will therefore write a literature or book review on a topic of interest to them that relates to one of the subjects addressed by this course. A book review will generally focus intensively on one or two related books; a literature review will examine the development of a theme or problem through time and a larger number of readings. Either type of analysis should be 4,000-5,000 words. Students should consult with the instructors before selecting a review topic. Literature and book reviews that may serve as models for such forms of scholarship are listed at the end of this syllabus.
Oral Exam Final (20% of the final grade): As with the preliminary exam process, students will be given a brief oral exam with the course instructors. The oral exam may focus on issues raised in the written exam, but any material on the syllabus may be covered during the exam.
It is important that students cite the material that they have relied upon in writing these papers. If you have questions about when you need to provide citation for a source, please see the Duke Libraries' guide on avoiding plagiarism. If you have questions about how to provide citation on your sources, please see the Duke Libraries' guide on citation formats. Use any citation format that you prefer, what is important is that you give credit to the sources you used.
The following books are available for purchase at the Duke University Bookstore and are also available for purchase through various online sources.
D. Scott Bennett and Allan C. Stam. The Behavioral Origins of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004).
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, Alastair Smith, Randolph Siverson, and James Morrow. The Logic of Political Survival (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003).
All other readings are available online through Duke's full-text databases or on e-reserves. Students can obtain the readings by clicking on the links below. Students must be connected to the Duke network (or through the Duke VPN client) to download and print the readings. If the link doesn't work, try using the search engines supported by your library and location.
Topics and Schedule
August 28: Organization and Introduction
August 30: No Class Meeting
September 4: The Nature of Power and Violence
Thomas Schelling. 1956. "An Essay on Bargaining." American Economic Review 46(3): 281-30.
Dahl, Robert. "The Concept of Power." Behavioral Science 2 (2) : 201-215. (BF1.B5)
Robert Jervis, 1978. "Cooperation under the Security Dilemma," World Politics 30 (2), pp. 167-214.
Stathis Kalyvas. 2003. "The Ontology of 'Political Violence:' Action and Identity in Civil Wars." Perspectives on Politics 1(3): 475-494.
September 6: Rationalist Theories of Violence
James Fearon. 1995. "Rationalist Explanations for War". International Organization 49(3):379-414.
Powell, Robert. 2004. "The Inefficient Use of Power: Costly Conflict with Complete Information." American Political Science Review 98 (2): 231-241.
Bahar Leventoglu and Amer Tarar. 2008. "Does Private Information Lead to Delay or War in Crisis Bargaining?" International Studies Quarterly 52(3):533-553.
September 11: Realism
Waltz, Theory of International Politics, pp. 79-128, 161-193. Course Blackboard Page.
Stephen Walt, "Alliance Formation and the Balance of World Power," International Security, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Spring, 1985), pp. 3-43
John A. Vasquez, "The Realist Paradigm and Degenerative versus Progressive Research Programs: An Appraisal of Neotraditional Research on Waltz's Balancing Proposition" The American Political Science Review , Vol. 91, No. 4. (Dec., 1997), pp. 899-912.
September 13: The Realism / Institutionalism Debate
Robert Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, 1984), chapters 5-6. Course Blackboard Page.
Joseph Grieco, "Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest Liberal Institutionalism," International Organization , Vol. 42, No. 3. (Summer, 1988), pp. 485-507.
Emerson Niou and Peter Ordeshook. 1994. "'Less Filling, Taste's Great': the Realist-Neoliberal Debate." World Politics 46(2):209-234.
September 18: Constructivism
Alexander Wendt. 1992. "Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics." International Organization 46:391-425.
Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. "International Norm Dynamics and Political Change." International Organization 52(4): 887-917.
Camber Warren. 2012. "Not By the Sword Alone: Soft Power, Mass Media, and the Production of State Sovereignty." International Organization, Forthcoming. (See Sakai page).
September 20: Political Psychology
Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). Chapter 4. Course Blackboard Page.
Chaim Kaufmann, "Out of the Labs and Into the Archives: A Method for Testing Psychological Explanations of Political Decision Making," International Studies Quarterly, 38, 4, (1994).
Rose McDermott, Dustin Tingley, Jonathan Cowden, Giovanni Frazetto, and Dominic Johnson. 2009. Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Predicts Behavioral Aggression Following Provocation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(7) 2118-2123.
September 25: International System Structure
Edward Mansfield. 1992. "Concentration of Capabilities and the Onset of War." Journal of Conflict Resolution 36(1):3-24.
Douglas Lemke and Suzanne Werner. 1996. "Power Parity, Commitment to Change, and War." International Studies Quarterly 40(2):435-460.
John Mearsheimer. 1990. "Back to the Future: Instability in Europe After the Cold War." International Security 15(1):5-56.
September 27: International Institutions
Michael Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis. 2000. "International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis." American Political Science Review 94(4):779-801
Virginia Page Fortna. 2003. "Scraps of Paper: Agreements and the Durability of Peace." International Organization 57(2):337-372.
Christopher Gelpi. 1997. "Crime and Punishment: The Role of Norms in Crisis Bargaining." American Political Science Review 91(2):339-360.
October 2: Conventional Deterrence
Paul Huth, "Extended Deterrence and the Outbreak of War," American Political Science Review, 82, (1988).
James D. Fearon, "Signaling versus the Balance of Power and Interests: An Empirical Test of a Crisis Bargaining Model," The Journal of Conflict Resolution , Vol. 38, No. 2, Arms, Alliances, and Cooperation: Formal Models and Empirical Tests. (1994), pp. 236-269.
Daryl Press. 2004/2005. "The Credibility of Power: Assessing Threats During the 'Appeasement' Crises of the 1930's." International Security 29(3):136-169.
Mark Crescenzi. 2007. "Reputation and Interstate Conflict." American Journal of Political Science 51(2):382-396.
October 4: Nuclear Deterrence and Proliferation
Kenneth Waltz, "Nuclear Myths and Political Realities," American Political Science Review, 90, 3, (1990).
Scott Sagan, "The Perils of Proliferation", International Security, vol.18, no.4, (1994).
Peter Feaver and Emerson Niou. "Managing Nuclear Proliferation: Condemn, Strike, or Assist?" International Studies Quarterly 40(2):209-233.
October 9: The Democratic Peace
Bruce Russett and Zeev Maoz, "Normative and Structural Causes of the Democratic Peace, 1946‑1986," American Political Science Review, 87 (1993), pp. 624‑638.
James Fearon. 1994. "Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes." The American Political Science Review, Vol. 88, No. 3 (Sep., 1994), pp. 577-592
Andrew Moravcsik. 1997. "Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics." International Organization 51(4):513-553.
October 11: Critiques of the Democratic Peace
Henry Farber and Joanne Gowa, "Polities and Peace," International Security 20 (Fall 1995), pp. 123‑146.
Ido Oren, "The Subjectivity of the Democratic Peace," International Security 20, No. 2 (Fall 1995), pp. 147‑184.
Erik Gartzke. 2000. "Preferences and the Democratic Peace." International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 44, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 191-212
October 16: Fall Break
October 18: Trade and Interstate Conflict
John Oneal and Bruce Russett, "Assessing the Liberal Peace with Alternative Specifications: Trade Still Reduces Conflict," Journal of Peace Research 36 (July 1999), pp. 423-442.
Erik Gartzke. 2007. "The Capitalist Peace." American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 166-191.
Michael Ward, Randolph Siverson, and Xun Cao. 2007. "Disputes, Democracies and Dependencies: A Re-examination of the Kantian Peace." American Journal of Political Science 51(3)583-601.
Christopher Gelpi and Joseph M. Grieco. 2008. "Democracy, Interdependence, and the Sources of the Liberal Peace," Journal of Peace Research 45,1:17-37.
October 23 & 25: What Have We Learned About Interstate Conflict?
Scott Bennett and Allan C. Stam. The Behavioral Origins of War. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004).
October 30: Models of Civil War
James Fearon and David Laitin. 2003. "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War." American Political Science Review 97(1).
Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, 2004. "Greed and Grievance in Civil War," Oxford Economic Papers 56 (4), pp. 563-595.
Michael Ward, Brian Greenhill, and Kristin Bakke. 2010. "The Perils of Policy by P-Value: Predicting Civil Conflicts." Journal of Peace Research 46(4):363-375.
November 1: Civil Wars (Continued)
Havard Hegre et. al. 2001. "Toward a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change and Civil War, 1816-1992. American Political Science Review 95(1).
James Vreeland. 2008. "The Effect of Political Regime on Civil War." Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(3): 401-425.
Stathis Kalyvas and Laia Balcells. 2010. "International System and Technologies of Rebellion." American Political Science Review 104(3): 415-429.
Fearon, James and David Laitin. 1996. "Explaining Interethnic Cooperation." American Political Science Review 30: 715-735.
Habyarimana, James, Macartan Humphreys, Dan Posner, and Jeremy Weinstein. 2007. "Why Does Ethnic Diversity Undermine Public Goods Provision?" American Political Science Review 101: 709-725. (Cambridge Online Journals)
Kanchan Chandra and Steven Wilkinson. 2008. "Measuring the Effect of 'Ethnicity." Comparative Political Studies 41(4-5):515-563.
November 8: Ethnicity & the Mobilization of Violence
Guillermo Trejo. 2009. "Religious Competition and Ethnic Mobilization in Latin America: Why the Catholic Church Promotes Indigenous Movements in Mexico." American Political Science Review 103:323-342. (Cambridge Online Journals)
Adria Lawrence. 2010. "Triggering Nationalist Violence: Competition and Conflict in Uprisings Against Colonial Rule." International Security 35(2):88-122.
Marc Howard Ross. 1985. "Internal and External Conflict and Violence: Cross-Cultural Evidence and a New AnalysisInternal and External Conflict and Violence: Cross-Cultural Evidence and a New Analysis," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 29, No. 4 (Dec., 1985), pp. 547-579
November 13: The Sources of Transnational Terrorism
Robert Pape. 2003. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism." American Political Science
Review 97: 343-361.
Scott Ashworth, Joshua Clinton, Adam Meirowitz, and Kristopher Ramsay. 2008. "Design, Inference, and the Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism." American Political Science Review 102:269-273. (Cambridge Online Journals)
Christopher Gelpi and Nazli Avdan. 2012. Democracy and the Multilateral Flow of Transnational Terrorism, 1968-2007.
November 15: The Consequences of Transnational Terrorism
Max Abrams. 2006. "Why Terrorism Does Not Work." International Security 31: 42-78.
Max Abrahms. 2008. "What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-Terrorism Strategy 32(4): 78-105.
Bloom, Mia. 2004. "Palestinian Suicide Bombing: Public Support, Market Share, and Outbidding." Political Science Quarterly 119(1).
Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan. 2005. "Conciliation, Counterterrorism, and Patterns of Terrorist Violence." International Organization 59(1).
November 20: Intervention & COIN
Alexander Downes and Jonathan Monten. 2010. "FIRCed to be Free: Foreing Imposed Regime Change and Democratization." Working Paper.
Lyall, Jason and Isaiah Wilson, III. 2009. "Rage Against the Machines: Explaining Outcomes in Counterinsurgency Wars." International Organization 63: 67-106.
Andrew Enterline and Joseph Magagnoli. 2009. "Is the Chance of Success in Afghanistan Better Than a Coin-Toss?" Foreign Policy, August 27, 2009.
Peter Feaver. 2008. "Anatomy of the Surge." Commentary. April 2008.
Stathis N. Kalyvas and Matthew Adam Kocher, 2009. "The Dynamics of Violence in Vietnam: An Analysis of the Hamlet Evaluation System," Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (3), pp. 335-355. (SAGE Premier)
November 27 & 29: Integrating Civil and International Conflict
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, James Morrow, Alistair Smith, and Randolph Siverson. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
December 7: Take-Home Written Final Exam 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM.
Exams will be distributed and returned electronically
December 10: Literature or Book Review Papers Due: 9:00 AM
Please submit papers electronically with your last name as the beginning of the file name.
December 11-12: Oral Final Exams
Special Section: Model Book and Literature Reviews
Peter Gourevitch, "The Second Image Reversed," International Organization 32 (Autumn 1978), pp. 881-912.
Theda Skocpol, "A Critical Review of Barrington Moore's Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy," Politics and Society 4 (Fall 1973), pp. 1-34.
John Ruggie,"Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a Neorealist Synthesis," World Politics 35 (April 1983), pp. 261-285.
John A. Vasquez, "The Realist Paradign and Degenerative versus Progressive Research Programs: An Appraisal of Neotraditional Research on Waltz's Balancing Proposition," American Political Science Review 91 (December 1997), pp. 899-912.
Douglas Porch, "Military "Culture" and the Fall of France in 1940: A Review Essay," International Security 24 (Spring 2000), pp. 157-180.
Thomas Schwartz, review of Ballots and Bullets: The Elusive Democratic Peace, in Comparative Political Studies 33 (June 2000).
Richard Rosecrance: "War and Peace," [review of John Mearsheimer's Tragedy of Great Power Politics] World Politics 55 (October 2002), pp. 137-166.
Jack S. Levy, "Theories of General War," World Politics 37 (Apr., 1985), pp. 344-374.
Jack Levy, "Declining Power and the Preventive Motivation for War," World Politics 40 (October 1987), pp. 82-107.
Jack Levy, "Domestic Politics and War," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18 (Spring, 1988), pp. 653-673.
Robert Jervis, "War and Misperception," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18 (Spring, 1988), pp. 675-700.
Jack Levy, "Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield," International Organization 48 (Spring 1994): 279-312.
John Mearsheimer,"The False Promise of International Institutions," International Security 19 (Winter 1994/95).