PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: A CONTEMPORY INTRODUCTION

SUGGESTED READINGS AVAILABLE ON LINE

The items below are available on line, often through JSTORS (http://www.jstor.org/), but also increasingly elsewhere. If a link below does not work, some creative surfing, especially using Google-scholar http://scholar.google.com/schhp?hl=en&tab=ws may enable the user to find the item after all.

Topics follow roughly the order in which they are introduced in The Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction, 3d edition (2011).

 

Contents
SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY
EXPLANATION
LAWS AND CAUSATION
NATURAL KIND AND THE SPECIAL KINDS OF SPECIAL SCIENCES
SINGULAR CAUSATION
PROBABILISTIC CAUSATION, CAUSAL LAWS, AND CHANCES
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE
SCIENTIFIC REALISM AND THE CHARACTER OF SCIENTIFIC THEORIES
THEORIES AND THEORETICAL ENTITIES
TESTING AND CONFIRMATION OF THEORIES
REDUCTIONISM
QUINE, NATURALTISM, AND UNDERDETERMINATION
KUHN AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
THE CRITERIA OF THEORY CHOICE
FEMINISM, SCIENCE, AND PHILOSOPHY
MATAPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF MODERN PHYSICS

 

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY

Schlick, Moritz "The Future of Philosophy"
College of the Pacific Publications in Philosophy (1932) 1:45--62.
Link

 

Rosenberg, Alexander "Biology and its Philosophy"
The Structure of Biological Science (1985).. Cambridge University Press.
Link

EXPLANATION

 

Hempel, Carl, "Two Models of Scientific Explanation"
1965
Link

 

Kitcher, Philip, "Explanation, Conjunction, and Unification"
The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 73, No. 8 (Apr. 22, 1976), pp. 207-212
JSTOR
Philpapers

Van Fraassen, Bas, "The Pragmatics of Explanation"
American Philosophical Quarterly (1977): 14(2):143 -150
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Glymour, Clark, "Explanations, Tests, Unity and Necessity"
Nous 14 (1): 31-50 (1980)
JSTOR
PhilPapers
Link

Achinstein, Peter , "The Pragmatic Character of Explanation"
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association , Vol. 1984, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1984), pp. 275-292
JSTOR
PhilPapers

 

Kitcher, Philip and Salmon, Wesley, "Van Fraassen on Explanation"
The Journal of Philosophy , Vol. 84, No. 6 (Jun., 1987), pp. 315-330
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Salmon, Wesley "Scientific Explanation: Causation and Unification"
Crítica 22 (66):3 - 23 (1990)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

LAWS AND CAUSATION

 

J.S. Mill, System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive(1882)
Link 1
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Mackie, J.L., "Counterfactuals and Causal Laws"
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1961
Link

Mackie, J. L., "Causes and Conditions"
American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Oct., 1965), pp. 245-264
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Hempel, Carl, "Laws and Their Role in Scientific Explanation"
Philosophy of Natural Science (1966)
Link

Lewis, David, "Causation"
The Journal of Philosophy , Vol. 70, No. 17, Seventieth Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Association Eastern Division (Oct. 11, 1973), pp. 556-567
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Dretske, Fred, "Laws of Nature"
Philosophy of Science, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Jun., 1977), pp. 248-268
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Beauchamp, Tom and Alex Rosenberg, Hume and the Problem of Causation
Oxford University Press, 1980
Full text available on line

Earman, John "The Laws of Nature"
A Primer on Determinism(1986)
Google Books

Beatty, John, "the Evolutionary Contingenecy Thesis"
Concepts, Theories, and Rationality in Biological Science (1995)
Link 1
Link 2

Cartwright, N., "Where Do Laws of Nature Come From?"
Dialectica, 51: 65-78. 1997
Wiley Online Library
PhilPapers''

Earman, John and John Roberts, "Ceteris paribus, There is No Problem of Provisos"
Synthese 118 (3):439--478. 1999.
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Woodward, James, "Explanations and Invariance in the Special Sciences"
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 51(2), 197-254, 58 p. June 2000.
Link
PhilPapers

Lange, Marc, "Who's Afraid of 'Ceteris-Paribus' Laws? Or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Them"
Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy, 57(3), 407-423. 17 p. 2002.
JSTOR
PhilPapers
UNC

 

NATURAL KIND AND THE SPECIAL KINDS OF SPECIAL SCIENCES

Sober, Elliott, "Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism"
Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383 (1980)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Hacking, Ian, "A Tradition of Natural Kinds"
Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, Vol. 61, No. 1/2, The Twenty-Ninth Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy (Feb., 1991), pp. 109-126
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Kitcher, Philip, "Some Puzzles About Species"In Michael Ruse (ed.), What the Philosophy of Biology Is: Essays Dedicated to David Hull. Kluwer Academic Publishers (1989)
Link

Boyd, Richard. "Homeostasis, Species, and Higher Taxa"
R. A. Wilson (ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays. Mit Press(1999).
Link 1
Link 2

 

SINGULAR CAUSATION

 

Gasking, Douglas, "Causation and Recipes"
Mind, New Series, Vol. 64, No. 256 (Oct., 1955), pp. 479-487
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Fair, David, "Causation and the Flow of Energy"
Erkenntnis, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Nov., 1979), pp. 219-250
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Lewis, David, "Causation as Influence"
The Journal of Philosophy Vol. 97, No. 4, Special Issue: Causation (Apr., 2000), pp. 182-197
JSTOR
PhilPapers

PROBABILISTIC CAUSATION, CAUSAL LAWS, AND CHANCES

 

Cartwright, Nancy, "Causal Laws and Effective Strategies"
Nous. Vol. 13, No. 4, Special Issue on Counterfactuals and Laws (Nov., 1979), pp. 419-437
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Mills, Susan and John H. Beatty
Philosophy of Science 46 (2):263-286 (1979)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Salmon, Wesley, "Probabilistic Causality"
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 61 (1980)
Link

Lewis, David, "A Subjectivist's Guide to Objective Chance"
Link
PhilPapers

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE

 

Nagel, Ernest, "Experimental Laws and Theories"
The Structure of Science(1961)
Google Books

Feyerabend, Paul, "Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism"
Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science, vol. 3 (1962): p. 29-97.
Part 1
Part 2

Kitcher, Philip, "Theories, Theorists and Theoretical Change,"
The Philosophical Review. Vol. 87, No. 4 (Oct., 1978), pp. 519-547
JSTOR

SCIENTIFIC REALISM AND THE CHARACTER OF SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

 

Hempel, Carl, "The Theoretician's Dilemma: a Study in the Logic of Theory Construction"
Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 2:173-226 (1958)
Minnesota Center in the Philosophy of Science

Nagel, Ernest, "The Cognitive Status of Theories"
The Structure of Science(1961)
Google Books'

Van Fraassen, Bas, "Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism"
The Scientific Image, Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1980.
Link

Laudan, Larry, "A Confutation of Convergent Realism"
Philosophy of Science(1981). 48 (1):19-49.
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Gutting, Gary, "Scientific Realism vs. Constructive Empiricism"
The Monist 65 (1982) - (3):336-349.
JSTOR
PhilPapers
Google Books

Worrall, John, "Scientific Realism and Scientific Change"
The Philosophical Quarterly Vol. 32, No. 128, Special Issue: Scientific Realism (Jul., 1982), pp. 201-231
JSTOR
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McMullin, Ernest, "A Case for Scientific Realism"
Scientific Realism, ed. J. Leplin, 1984, pp. 8-40. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Link

Fine, Arthur, "And Not Anti-Realism Either"
Nous, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1984 A. P. A. Western Division Meetings (Mar., 1984), pp. 51-65
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Worrall, John, "Structural Realism: the Best of Both Worlds?"
Dialectica, vol 43, Issue 1-2, pages 99-124. (1989)
Wiley Online Library

Hacking, Ian, "Extragalactic Reality: The Case of Gravitational Lensing"
Philosophy of Science , Vol. 56, No. 4 (Dec., 1989), pp. 555-581
JSTOR

THEORIES AND THEORETICAL ENTITIES

 

Feyerabend, Paul, "On the "Meaning" of Scientific Terms"
The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 62, No. 10 (May 13, 1965), pp. 266-274
JSTOR

Hempel, Carl, "Problems and changes in the empiricist criterion of meaning"
Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 4, 41-63, 23 p.
Link

Van Fraassen, Bas, "To Save the Phenomena"
The Journal of Philosophy Vol. 73, No. 18, 1976, pp. 623-632
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Worrall, John, "Structural Realism: The Best of Both Worlds?"
Dialectica, 1989, v. 43, pp. 99-124.
Link
PhilPapers

Kitcher, Philip, "Real Realism: The Galilean Strategy"
The Philosophical Review Vol. 110, No. 2 (Apr., 2001), pp. 151-197
JSTOR
PhilPapers

 

TESTING AND CONFIRMATION OF THEORIES

Russell, B., Chapter 6, "On Induction"
The Problems of Philosophy (1912)
Link

Hempel, C.G., "Studies in the Logic of Confirmation (II.),"
Mind, New Series, Vol. 54, No. 214 (Apr., 1945), pp. 97-121
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Hempel, C., and Oppenheim, P., "Studies in the Logic of Confirmation"
Philosophy of Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr., 1948  
JSTOR

Popper, K.R., "The problem of induction (1953, 1974)"
Link

Popper, K.R., "Science: Conjectures and Refutations"
Conjectures and Refutations (1963)
Link

Salmon, W., "Confirmation and Relevance"
Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science (1975)
Link

Salmon, W., "The Appraisal of Theories: Kuhn Meets Bayes"
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol. 1990, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1990), pp. 325-332
JSTOR

Goodman, N., "The new riddle of induction,"
Fact, Fiction, and Forecast
Link

Salmon, Wesley, "Bayes' Theorem and the History of Science"
Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science, vol. 5 (1970): p. 68-86.
Link

REDUCTIONISM

 

Oppenheim, P. and Putnam, H., "Unity of science as a working hypothesis"
Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 2 (1958), Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press.
Link

Shaffner, K., "Approaches to Reduction"
Philosophy of Science, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Jun., 1967), pp. 137-147
JSTOR
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Fodor, J., "Special sciences (or: the disunity of science as a working hypothesis)"
Synthese 28 (2):97-115 (1974)
JSTOR
PhilPapers
Link

Kitcher, Philp, "1953 and all That. A Tale of Two Sciences"
The Philosophical Review, Vol. 93, No. 3 (Jul., 1984), pp. 335-373
JSTOR
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Elliot Sober "The multiple realizability argument against reductionism"
Philosophy of Science, Vol. 66, No. 4, Dec., 1999 
JSTOR
PhilPapers

 

QUINE, NATURALTISM, AND UNDERDETERMINATION

Quine, W.V.O., "Two Dogmas of Empiricism"
The Philosophical Review, Vol. 60, No. 1 (Jan., 1951), pp. 20-43
JSTOR
PhilPapers
Link

Quine, W.V.O., "On empirically equivalent systems of the world
Erkenntnis Volume 9 (1975), Number 3, 313-328
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Laudan, L., and Leplin, G., "Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination"
The Journal of Philosophy. Vol. 88, No. 9 (Sep., 1991), pp. 449-472
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Sober, E., "Mathematics and Indispensability"
The Philosophical Review, Vol. 102, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 35-57
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Rosenberg, A., "A field guide to recent species of naturalism"
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, (1996) 47 (1): 1-29
JSTOR
PhilPapers

KUHN AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

 

Kuhn T.S., "Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability"
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Vol. 1982, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1982), pp. 669-688
JSTOR

Kuhn, T.S., "Rationality and Theory Choice"
The Journal of Philosophy. Vol. 80, No. 10, Part 1: Eightieth Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical (1983)
JSTOR

Kuhn, T.S., "The Road since Structure"
PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association
Vol. 1990, Volume Two: Symposia and Invited Papers (1990), pp. 3-13
JSTOR

Salmon, Wesley, "Rationality and Objectivity in Science (or: Tom Kuhn Meets Tom Bayes)"
Scientific Theories, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol XIV(1990)
Google Books
Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science

THE CRITERIA OF THEORY CHOICE

 

Kuhn, T.S., "Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice"
The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in the Scientific Tradition and Change(1974, 1977)
Link

Sober, Elliott, "Let's Razor Ockham's Razor"
Explanation and its Limits (1990)
Link


Sklar, Lawrence, "Foundational Physics and Empiricist Critique"
Scientific Theories, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol XIV(1990)
Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science

 

FEMINISM, SCIENCE, AND PHILOSOPHY

Longino, H., "Can there be a feminist science?"
Hypatia 2 (3):51 - 64 (1987)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Anderson, E., "Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and a Defense"
Hypatia 10 (3):50 - 84 (1995)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

MATAPHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS OF MODERN PHYSICS

 

Reichenbach, Hans, "The Genidentity of Quantum Particles"
The Direction of Time(1956)
GoogleBooks

Stein, Howard, "On Einstein - Minkowski Space-time"
Journal of Philosophy 65 (1):5-23 (1968)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Mermin, N. David, "Is the Moon There When Nobody Looks? Reality and the Quantum Theory"
Physics Today 31(April 1985): pp. 38-47
Physicstoday.org
Link

Earman, John, and John Norton "What Price Spacetime Substantivalism? The Hole Story"
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (4):515-525 (1987)
JSTOR
PhilPapers

Maudlin, Tim, "Part and Whole in Quantum Mechanics"
Interpreting Bodies: Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Ed. Elana Castellani (1998)
GoogleBooks