Information from
Donald J. Grout, A History of Western Music, Third Edition. New York: W. W. Norton. 1980
Marilyn Stokstad, Art History, Revised Edition. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 1999.

WebMuseum, Famous Paintings
Discovery of ultraviolet rays 
Volta invents voltaic pile
1800 David, Madame Recamier 
Schiller, Die Jungfrau von Orleans
Napoleon made Consul for life 1802 Chateaubriand, Génie due Christianisme
Napoleon crowned Emperor 
Lewis and Clark expedition
1804 Schiller, William Tell
Battle of Trafalgar 1805 Ludwig Arnim and Clemes Brentano, Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Formal dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire 
Lewis and Clark reach Pacific
Fulton builds the first commercial steamboat 
Lond streets lighted by gas
1807 Hegel, Phenomenology of the Spirit 
Wordsworth, Intimations of Immortality
1808 Goethe, Faust, Part I
1810 Sir Walter Scott, The Lady of the Lake
1811 Goethe, Dichtung und Wahrheit 
Napoleon retreats from Moscow 1812 Goerge Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage 
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Kinder and Hausmärchen
Napoleon abdicates 1813 Jane Austin, Pride and Prejudice
Napoleon to Elba 
Congress of Vienna
1814 Scott, Waverly 
Francisco Goya, King Ferdinand VII
Battle of Waterloo 
The Holy Alliance
1815  Goya, Witch's Sabbath
1816 Percy Shelley, Alastor, or the Spirit of Solitude
1817 David Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation 
John Keats, Endymion 
Byron, Manfred
First steamship crosses Atlantic 
Florida purchased from Spain 
1819 Scott, Ivanhoe
1820-1829 Beethoven's Ninth Symphony 
Niépce, first positive-image photographs (France) 
Audubon, Birds of America (USA)
1820 Shelley, Prometheus Unbound 
Blake, Jerusalem 
Alphone Lamartine Méditations Poétiques
Faraday's electric motor and generator 1821 John Constable, The Hay Wain
Monroe doctrine 1823
Charles X of France crowned 1824
Erie Canal opened 
Ludwig I of Bavaria crowned
1825 Alessandro Manzoni, I Promessi Sposi 
Alexander Pushkin, Boris Gudunov
1826 James Fenimore Cooper, The Last of the Mohicans
Mormon church founded 1827 Heinrich Heine, Buch der Lieder
1828 First performance of Goethe's Faust
Independence of Greece  1829 Honoré de Balzac, La Comédie Humaine 
Victor Hugo, Les Orientales 
James Mill, Analysis of the Mind
1830-1839 Hokusai, Hundred Views of Mount Fuji (Japan) 
Cole, The Oxbow (USA) 
Houses of Parliament Redesigned (England)
First railroad, Liverpool to Manchester 
July Revolution in France 
1830 Lamartine, Harmonies poétiques et religieuses 
Hugo, Hernani 
Stenndhal, Le Rouge et le Noir
William Lloyd Garrison found the Liberator 
Beginning of anti-slavery movement
1831 Hugo, Notre Dame de Paris
Slavery outlawed in British Empire 1833 Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus
McCormick patents mechanical reaper 1834 Edward Lytton, The Last Days of Pompeii
Independence of Texas  1836 Charles Dickens, The Pickwick Papers 
Sir Charles Barry designs Houses of Parliament, London
Queen Victoria crowned 
Mount Holyoke College founded
1837 Carlisle, The French Revolution
Daguerre takes first photographs 1838 Ferdinand Delacroix, The Capture of Constantinople 
1839 Joseph Turner, The fighting Temeraire 
Edgar Allan Poe, Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque 
Stendahl, The Charterhouse of Parms
Revolt in Paris establishes French Second Republic 
1840-1849 Talbot publishes first book illustrated with photographs (England) 
Labrouste, Biblioth&egrav;que Sainte-Genevi&egrav;ve (France) 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood established in England 
Courbet, A Burial ay Ornans
First incandescent electric bulb 1840
1841 Punch founded
1843 Sören Kierkegaard, Fear and Trembling
First telegraph message transmitted 1844 Alexander Dumas, The Three Musketeers
1845 Dumas, The Count of Monte Cristo
First use of ether as an anesthetic 
Howe's sewing machine patented 
Smithsonian Institution founded
Potato famine in Ireland 
Gold rush in California 
First Women's Rights Convention (Seneca Falls, NY) 
Revolutionary uprisings in Europe
1848 Thomas Macaulay, History of England 
William Thackeray, Vanity Fair 
Alexandre Dumas fils, La Dame aux Camélias, 
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto (Germany)
1849 Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breaker 
Dickens, David Copperfield
South African Republic established 1850-1859 Paxton, Crystal Palace (England) 
Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities (England)
1850 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter 
Dante Rossetti, The Annunciation 
Theodor Storm, Immensee 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Evangeline
First submarine telegraph cable 1851 Melville, Moby Dick 
Millet, The Gleaners (France)
Second Empire under Napoleon III 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin (USA)
Crimean War 
Commodore Perry opens Japan to the West 
first rail connection New York-Chicago
1854 Thoreau, Walden (USA)
Charge of the Light Brigade 1855  Whitman, Leaves of Grass
Dred Scott decision 1857 Flaubert, Madame Bovary (France) 
Currier and Ives publish prints 
Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal
Covent Garden opera house opens 1858 
Darwin, Origin of Species (England) 
John Brown raids Harper's Ferry 
1859 Millet, The Angelus 
Tennyson, Idylls of the King
Dominion of Canada formed 
Meiji Restoration of emperor (Japan) 
Revolution in Spain
1860-1869 Hugo, Les Misérables (France) 
Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe and Olympia (France) 
Brooklyn Bridge begun (USA)
Serfs emancipated in Russia 
Unification of Italy 
Civil War in America (till 1865)
1861  George Elliott, Silas Marner
Bismark chancellor of Prussia 1862 Turgenev, Fathers and Sons 
Daumier, Third Class Carriage
Gettysburg Address 
Emancipation Proclamation
1863 Manet, Olympia
First International founded by Karl Marx 
First qascent of the Matterhorn 
First successful transatlantic cable
1864 Carroll, Alice in Wonderland 
Tolstoy, War and Peace (Russia)
Lincoln assassinated 
Thirteen Amendment ratified, outlawing slavery
Christian Science founded by Mary Baker Eddy 1866 Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment (Russia)
Purchase of Alaska 
Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary (til 1916)
1867 Ibsen, Peer Gynt 
Marx, Das Kapitol
1868 Browning, The Ring and the Book 
Dostoyevsky, The Idiot
Suez Canal opened 
First American transcontinental railroad
1869 Verne, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea


1870-1879 First Impressionistart exhibition (France) 
Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1 (Russia) 
Renoir, Moulin de la Galette (France) William Morris  promotes Arts and Crafts Movement
Muybridge, motion photography (USA)
Schliemann excavates the site of Troy 
Rome becomes the capital of Italy 
Franco-Prussian War 
Vatican Council proclaims papal infallibility
Bismark chancellor of Germany 
Paris Commune 
Third Republic in France
1871 Emerson, Essays 
Darwin, Descent of Man
1872 Eliot, Middlemarch 
Whistler, Portrait of Miss Alexander 
Daudet, Tartarin de Tarascon 
Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy 
1873 Degas, Place de la Concorde
1875 Mary Baker Eddy, Science and Health 
Tolstoy, Anna Karenina
Telephone invented by Bell 1876 Mallarmé, L'Après-midi d'un Faune 
Mark Twain, Tom Sawyer 
Renoir, Le Bal du Moulin de la Galette
Edison invents the phonograph 1877  Monet, Gare Saint-Lazare
Edison invents an improved incandescent electric light 1879 George, Progress and Poverty 
Ibsen, The Doll's House 
Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov
Major European colonization of Africa begins 
Hertz discovers and produces radio waves (Germany) 
Eastman's box camera (USA) 
Steel first used in building construction (USA)
1880-1890 Neo-Impressionists emerge (France) 
Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (France) 
Art Nouveau emerges (France) 
Van Gogh, The Starry Night (France)
Irish insurrection 
Pavlov's experiments on conditioned reflexes
1880 Zola, Nana
Tsar Alexander Ii assassinated 
President Garfield shot 
Panama Canal built
1881 Renoir, Luncheon of the Boating Party 
James, Portrait of a Lady
Koch discovers tuberculosis germs 
Triple Alliance
1882 Manet, The Bar at the Folies Bergères
Daimler patents automobile motor 1883 Nietzsche, Also sprach Zarasthustra 
Stevenson, Treasure Island
Pasteur innoculates against rabies 
Mean solar day adopted as unit of universal time
1884 Rodin, The Burghers of Calais (France) 
Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on Grande Jatte 
Twain, Huckleberry Finn
First American electric street railway 
Brooklyn Bridge built
1885 Richardson designs Marshall Field warehouse 
Guy de Maupassant, Contes et Nouvelles 
Cézanne, Mont St. Victoire 
Howells, The Rise of Silas Lapham
American Federation of Labor organized 
Statue of Liberty unveiled in New York Harbor
1886 Nietzsche, Jenseits von Gut und Böaut;se 
Loti, Pêcheur d'Islande 
Rousseau, Un Soir de carnaval
1887 Strindberg, Der Vater
Kaiser Wilhelm II crowned (till 1918)  1888 Van Gogh, The Sunflowers
Paris World's Fair opened 
Brazil expels emperor, becomes republic
1889 Eiffel Tower completed 
Adams, History of theUnited States 
Rodin, The Thinker
Sino-Japanese War 
X rays discovered (Germany) 
Olympic Games reestablished (Greece)  
Aspirin is invented
1890-1899 James, The Principles of Psychology (USA) 
Riis, How the Other Half Lives (USA) 
Roman School of classicists (France) 
Sullivan, Wainwright Building (USA) 
McKim, Mead, and White, Boston Public Library 
Horta, Tassel House (Belgium) 
Antiacademic Secession movement begins in France 
Hunt, Biltmore Estate (USA) 
World of Art group forms in St. Petersburg (Russia) 
Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (Austria) and advent of psychoanalysis
1890 Ibsen, Hedda Gabler
1891 Conan Doyle, Adventures of Sherlock Holmes 
Saint-Gaudens, Adams Memorial
1892 Cézanne, The Card Players 
Maeterlinck, Pelléas et Mélisande 
Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge
1893 Crane, The Red Badge of Courage 
Wilde, Salome 
Sullivan, Transportation Building at World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
Nicholas II crowned; last Czar of Russia 
Dreyfus Affair (till 1905)
1894 Kipling, Jungle Book 
Shaw, Candida
Roentgen discovers X-rays 1895 Homer, Northeaster
1896 Gaughin, Materity 
Housman, A Shropshire Lad
Spanish-American War 1898 Rostand, Cyrano de Bergerac
  1900-1909 Stieglitz organizes Photo-Secession group, later known as 291 (USA) 
Fauves named (France) 
Die Br&uumlaut;cke forms (Germany) 
Golden Fleece group forms in Moscow (Russia) 
Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (France) 
Braque, Houses at L'Estaque inspires term Cubism (France) 
Ashcan School forms (USA) 
Braque and Picasso develop Analytic Cubism (France)
Futurism emerges (Italy)
Boxer Rebellion 
Zeppelin constructs first dirigible 
Freud,The Interpretatio of Dreams 
Hopkins, first studies of vitamins
Conrad, Lord Jim 
Sargent, The Windham Sisters 
Tolstoy, Resurrection
Edward VII King of England (till 1910) 
Marconi transmits wireless telegraph signals across the Atlantic 
Planck developes quantum theory
1901  Shaw, Caesar and Cleopatra 
Mann, Buddenbrooks
Discovery of radium by Albert & Marie Curie 1902 Gorky, Tales 
Monet, Waterloo Bridge
Wright brothers, first successful powered airplane flight 
Pope Pius X, Encyclical, Moto proprio 
Twsett, studies in absorption chromatography
1903 Shaw, Man and Superman
Russo-Japanese War 1904 Chekov, The Cherry Orchard 
Barrie, Peter Pan 
Rolland, Jean Christophe
Norway separates from Sweden 
First Russian Revolution 
Einstein, special relativity theory 
Wilstaetter, first chemical investigations in photosynthesis
San Francisco eathquake and fire 1906 Derain, London Bridge
Second Hague Conference 
Triple Entente
1907 Synge, The Playboy of the Western World 
Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Model "T" Ford produced 1908 Rilke, Neue Gedichte
Peary reaches North Pole 1909 Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, Chicago 
Union of South Africa Forms 
Worldwide influenza epidemic kills 20 million people 
League of Nations
1910-1919 Kandinsky organizes Der Blaue Reiter (Germany) 
Braque and Picasso evolve Synthetic Cubism (France) 
Cubo-Futurism emerges (Russia) 
Gilbert, Woolworth Building (USA) 
Armory Show launches modernism in USA 
Sant'Elia, Manifesto of Futurist Architecture (Italy) 
Malevich, Suprematist Painting (Russia) 
Dada movement begins in Switzerland 
De Stijl emerges in the Netherlands 
Purism emerges (France) 
Gropius establishes Bauhaus (Germany)
Discovery of protons and electrons 
George V King of England (till 1936)
1910 Russell and Whitehead, Principia Mathematica 
Masefield,The Tragedy of Pompey the Great
Amundsen reaches South Pole 1911 Wharton, Ethan Frome 
de Chirico, La Nostalgie de l'infini
Titanic Disaster 
Balkan wars
1912 Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase 
Kandinsky, Improvisation
1913 Lawrence, Sons and Lovers 
Mann, Death in Venice 
Sloane, Women Drying their Hair 
Braque, Musical Forms 
Proust, Remembrance of Things Past
First World War (till 1918) 
Panama Canal opened
Frost, North of Boston 
Lindsay, The Congo and Other Poems 
Griffith, The Birth of a Nation 
de Chirico, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
Bragg, X-Rays and Crystal Structure 
Morgan, Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity (theory of the gene)
1915 Maugham, Of Human Bondage
Einstein, general relativity theory 
Bolshevik revolution in Russia 
Battle of Verdun
1916 Wright, Imperial Hotel in Tokyo
US enters World War I 1917 
Rouault, Three Clowns 
Yeats, Wild Swans at Coole
1918 Cather, My Antonia 
Spengler, Decline of the West
Census shows more people living in urban than rural United States 
Women citizens granted the right to vote in the United States 
John Scopes convicted of teaching evolution in public school (USA) 
Kellogg-Briand Pact, signed by 62 nations, attempts to end war 
1920-1929 Harlem Renaissance (USA) 
Constructivist movement (Russia) 
Leger, Three Women (France) 
Le Corbusier, design for a Contemporary City of Three Million Inhabitants (France) 
Breton, "Manifesto of Surrealism" (France) 
Lang, film, Metropolis (Germany) 
Rietveld, Schr&oumlaut;der House (Netherlands 
Hitler, Mein Kampf (Germany) 
Morgan, San Simeon estate (USA) 
American Scene Painting emerges 
Eisenstein, film, October (Russia) 
Mead, book, Coming of Age in Samoa (USA) 
Rivera, murals for Mexico City Ministry of Education 
Woolf, essay, A Room of One's Own (England) 
The Museum of Modern Art founded (USA)
1921 Picasso,Three Musicians 
Mondriaan, Painting No. 1 
Chaplin, The Kid
Fascist revolution in Italy 
Discovery of insulin
1922 Galsworthy, The Forsyte Saga 
Eliot, The Waste Land (England) 
Joyce, Ulysses (Ireland) 
Rilke, Duino Elegies, Sonnets to Orpheus
Hitler, Ludendorff Putsch in Munich 1923 Klee, At the Mountain of the Bull
Stalin becomes dictator in Russia 1924 Shaw, Saint Joan 
Mann, The Magic Mountain 
Kafka, The Trial
Keilin, discovery of cytochromes and beginning of molecular biology 1925 Dreiser, An American Tragedy 
Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
1926 Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (USA) 
First all-sound films 
Lindberg makes first solo trans-Atlantic flight (USA) 
First television transmission 
Heisenberg and others propound "uncertainty principle" in quantum physics
1927 Epstein, Madonna and child 
Woolf, To the Lighthouse 
O'Neill, Strange Interlude 
Dirigible Graf Zeppelin circles globe (Germany) 
First radio broadcast of New York Philharmonic
1928 Lawrence, Lady Chatterly's Lover 
Huxley, Point Counter Point 
Stephen Vincent Benét, John Brown's Body
New York stock marked crash 
beginning of world-wide depression
1929 van der Rohe, German pavilion 
Giraudoux, Amphitryon 38 
Wolfe, Look Homeward, Angel 
Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury
Socialist Realism in art instituted by Stalin (Russia) 
Hitler takes dictatorial power in Germany 
Roosevelt establishes Federal Arts Project (USA) 
Spanish Civil War 
Carlson invents xerography (USA) 
Nazis launch anti-Jewish campaign throughout Germany
1930-1939 Mondrian, Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow (Netherlands) 
Regionalist painters emerge (USA) 
Huxley, novel, Brave New World (England) 
Malraux, novel, Man's Fate 
Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (USA) 
Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California photographed for Farm Securities Administration (USA) 
Mitchell, novel, Gone with the Wind (USA) 
American Abstract Artists group forms 
Renoir, film, The Grand Illusion (France) 
Miller, novel, Tropic of Capricorn (USA) 
Steinbeck, novel, Grapes of Wrath (USA) 
Kahlo, Two Fridas (Mexico) 
Krasner, Red, White, Blue, Yelllow, Black (USA)
1930 Mondriaan, Fox Trot 
Hopper, Early Sunday Morning 
Grant Wood, American Gothic 
Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses 
Hart Crane, The Bridge
Japan invades Manchuria 1931 O'Neill, Mourning Becomes Electra
Discovery of the neutron 1932 Stein, Matisse, Picasso and Gertrude Stein
F. D. Roosevelt, President of US 
Hitler, Chancellor of Germany
1933 Miró, Composition 
Toynbee, A Study of History 
Malraux, La Condition humaine
Adrian, studies in the electric nature of nerve impulses 
Joliot, discovery of induced radioactivity
1934 Mann, Joseph and His Brothers
Italy invades Ethiopia 1935 Eliot, Murder in the Cathedral 
Orozco, Man in Four Aspects
Spanish Civil War 1936 Dos Passos, U.S.A.
Japan invades China 
Andersson, discovery of positive electrons and mesons 
Krebs, metabolic pathways 
Hill, demonstration of chloroplast reaction in plants
1937 Picasso, Guernica 
Marquand, The Late George Apley
Bethe, Energy Production in Stars 
Discovery of nuclear fission 
Development of penicillin
1938 Dufy, Regatta
World War II (till 1945) 1939 Joyce, Finnegans Wake 
Forester, Captain Horatio Hornblower 
Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
First radio broadcast of the Metropolitan Opera 
Roosevelt elected to third term 
First commercial electron microscope 
Microwave radar
1940 Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls
U.S. enters war 
Atlantic Charter
United Nations Alliance 1942
1943 Chagall, Crucifixion
Roosevelt elected to fourth term 
Allied armies invade Germany
Surrender of Germany 
Atomic bomb used against Japan 
New York chosen as seat of United Nations 
Radio astronomy 
Jet planes and rockets
First Assembly of United Nations 
Nuremberg trials
1946 Le Corbusier, Unité d'Habitation, Marseilles 
Dylan Thomas, Deaths and Entrances
Marshall Plan 
Independence of India 
Perutz, X-ray studies on crystalline proteins
1947 Tennessee Williams, Streetcar Named Desire
North Atlantic Defense Pact 
Communist government in China
1949 Orwell, 1984 
Miller, Death of a Salesman
Korean War 
Hydrogen bomb
1950 Eliot, The Coctail Party
NATO formed from North Atlantic Pact 1951 Lipchitz, Birth of Venus
1952 Calder, Giraffe 
Camus, L'Homme revolté 
Eliot, Complete Plays and Poems
Malenkov succeeds Stalin in Russia 
Watson-Crick model of DNA molecule
1953 Churchill, History of the Second World War 
Beckett, Waiting for Godot
Gordon, Zeiger, and Townes, molecular amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 

U. S. Supreme Court decision outlawing school segregation

1954 e. e. cummings, Poems, 1923-1954 
Thomas, Under Milk Wood
E.R. Andrew, Nuclear Magnetic Renonance 1955 Auden, The Shield of Achilles
Revolt in Hungary 1956
First Sputnik launched 

International Geophysical Year begins 

T.D. Lee and C.N.Yang awarded Nobel Prize for discovery of principle of non-conservation of parity

Explorer I (U.S. satellite) 

Voyage of the Nautilus 

Khrushchev becomes Premier of U.S.S.R.

First moon rockets 

Studies in the structure of viruses

25 artificial satellites now in orbit 

Pioneer V launched 

First working laser

Peace Corps established 
Berlin Wall erected 
First manned space flights
1961 Oldenburg, "Store" 
"Art of Assemblage" show at Museum of Modern Art 
David Smith, "Cubi" sculptures 
Vatican Council II convenes 
Cuban missile crisis
1962 Albee, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
President Kennedy assassinated 
Increasing U.S. involvement in Vietnam
1963 Carson, Silent Spring
Kosygin becomes Premier of U.S.S.R. 1964
Gemini space vehicles 
Civil Rights march in Alabama
1965 Autobiography of Malcolm X 
Weiss, The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat (Marat-Sade) 
Hofmann paints Renate series
1966 Pinter, The Homecoming
Israeli-Arab Six-Day War 
Development of astrophysics 
Burbidge, Quasi-Stellar Objects ("quasars") 
Lilly, The Mind of the Dolphin 
Length of one second of time now determinable within limit of error of 1-2 parts in 1010
Soviet invasion of Czechosolvakia 
Student uprisings in France 
Massive anti-war protests in U.S.A. 
Assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert f. Kennedy
First men on the moon 1969
1970 Tofler, Future Shock 
Reich, The Greening of America
Indo-Pakistani war 
Independence of Bangladesh
Black September terrorist killings at Munich Olympics 
Pioneer 10 launched
End of U.S. involvement in Viet Nam 1973 Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago
Hearst kidnapping 
U.S.S.R. deports Solzhenitsyn 
President Nixon resigns
1974 Opening of Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C.
War in Cambodia ends 
International Women's Year 
Suez Canal reopens
U.S. Bicentennial celebrations 
Earthquake in Guatemala kills an estimated 25,000 people 
Death of Mao Tse Tsung 
Carter elected president
1976 Centenary of Bayreuth Festival
Detection of rings around the planet Uranus 
Blackouts in New York City 
Attrocities in Uganda under Amin regime 
Orient Express makes last run between Paris and Istanbul 
Panama Canal Treaty signed
First test-tube baby 
Discovery of Pluto's moon "Charon" 
Pope John Paul II elected
1978 Opening of East Wing of National Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Khomeini leads revolution in Iran 1979
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