Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of North Carolina

compiled by Will Cook

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North Carolina is fortunate to have a great diversity of woody plant species in its extensive forests, with approximately 652 species of trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines (491 native and 161 introduced). Included in this website are about 442 species accounts with photographs and ID tips, a key to help you identify common Piedmont tree species from their leaves, and complete species lists (with notes on how common each species is) for Durham and Orange counties. Please scroll down for individual species accounts or select one of the links below to continue.

Trees | Shrubs | Woody Vines

Summer key to common tree species
guide to 60+ species based on leaf characteristics, with links to species accounts.

Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Durham County | Orange County | Wake County
complete list for each county, frequency codes and references for each species, and photographic species accounts.

Trees of the Duke FACE Site, Orange Co., NC
species composition of our research site in Duke Forest, with links to species accounts.

Woody plant and wildflower identification books

Species Accounts

Below is an attempt at a full list* of the woody plants of North Carolina. The linked species accounts completed so far concentrate on species found in the Piedmont, since this website started out as a comprehensive guide to the trees of Durham County, NC (and many of the species accounts still refer to the status of trees here). Click on the names for photographs and descriptions. The list uses a broad definition of woody - some species that barely qualify as woody are listed. The taxonomy and common names below are a synthesis of those of Weakley (2011), Kartesz (USDA PLANTS database), Radford et al. (1968), the NatureServe Explorer database, and the NC Natural Heritage Program database. The common names used by the USDA PLANTS database are often bizarre and inappropriate - those in Weakley and other sources are usually much more appropriate. Radford is out of date on taxonomy, but still very useful for its detailed botanical descriptions, excellent line drawings, and status and distribution notes. I've started adding notes on each species' abundance in the three physiographic provinces of North Carolina:
M=Mountains, P=Piedmont, CP=Coastal Plain;
(c)=common, (u)=uncommon, (o)=occasional, (r)=rare, (vr)=very rare.

* New discoveries are always being made. If you notice something missing, please let me know.

Trees | Shrubs | Woody Vines

Native Trees - about 221 species

Abies fraseri (Fraser Fir) - M(u)
Acer floridanum (Southern Sugar Maple) - P, CP(u)
Acer leucoderme (Chalk Maple) - M(r), P(o)
Acer negundo var. negundo (Eastern Boxelder, Ash-leaved Maple) - M(u), P(c), CP(o)
Acer negundo var. texanum (Texas Boxelder, Ash-leaved Maple) - M(r)
Acer nigrum (Black Maple) - M(r)
Acer pensylvanicum (Striped Maple) - M(c)
Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Drummond's Red Maple) - CP(u)
Acer rubrum var. rubrum (Red Maple) - M, P, CP(c)
Acer rubrum var. trilobum (Carolina Red Maple) - P(u), CP(c)
Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple) - M, P, CP(u)
Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) - M(c), P(r)
Acer spicatum (Mountain Maple) - M(u)
Aesculus flava (Yellow Buckeye) - M(c), P(r)
Aesculus pavia var. pavia (Red Buckeye) - P(r), CP(o)
Aesculus sylvatica (Painted Buckeye) - M(r), P(u), CP(r)
Alnus serrulata (Hazel Alder, Tag Alder) - M, P, CP(c)
Alnus viridis ssp. crispa (Mountain Alder, Green Alder) - M(r)
Amelanchier arborea (Common Serviceberry) - M(u), P(c), CP(u)
Amelanchier canadensis (Canadian Serviceberry) - P(o), CP(u)
Amelanchier laevis (Allegheny Serviceberry) - M(c)
Amelanchier sanguinea (Roundleaf Serviceberry) - M(r)
Aralia spinosa (Devil's-walkingstick) - M, P, CP(u)
Asimina triloba (Pawpaw) - M(o), P(u), CP(o)
Baccharis halimifolia (Eastern Baccharis, Groundseltree) - P(u), CP(c)
Betula alleghaniensis (Yellow Birch) - M(c)
Betula cordifolia (Mountain Paper Birch) - M(vr)
Betula lenta (Sweet Birch, Black Birch, Cherry Birch) - M(c), P(r)
Betula nigra (River Birch) - M(o), P(c), CP(c)
Carpinus caroliniana var. caroliniana (American Hornbeam, Ironwood) - P, CP(c)
Carpinus caroliniana var. virginiana (American Hornbeam, Ironwood) - M, P(c)
Carya aquatica (Water Hickory) - CP(u)
Carya carolinae-septentrionalis (Carolina Shagbark Hickory) - P(u)
Carya cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory) - M, P, CP(c)
Carya glabra var. glabra (Pignut Hickory) - M, P, CP(c)
Carya glabra var. hirsuta (Hairy Pignut Hickory) - M(u)
Carya glabra var. megacarpa (Coastal Pignut Hickory) - CP(o)
Carya laciniosa (Shellbark Hickory) - P, CP(r)
Carya myristiciformis (Nutmeg Hickory) - CP(vr)
Carya ovalis (Red Hickory, Sweet Pignut Hickory) - M, P, CP(u)
Carya ovata (Shagbark Hickory) - M, P, CP(u)
Carya pallida (Sand Hickory) - M(r), P(r), CP(u)
Carya tomentosa (Mockernut Hickory) - M, P, CP(c)
Castanea dentata (American Chestnut) - M(c), P(r)
Castanea pumila (Chinkapin) - M, P, CP(u)
Celtis laevigata var. laevigata (Sugarberry) M(o), P(c), CP(c)
Celtis occidentalis var. occidentalis (Common Hackberry) - M, P, CP(r)
Celtis tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) - M(o), P(u), CP(u)
Cercis canadensis var. canadensis (Eastern Redbud) - M(u), P(c), CP(u)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic Whitecedar) - CP(u)
Chionanthus virginicus (Fringetree, Old Man's Beard) - M(o), P(u), CP(u)
Cladrastis kentukea (Yellowwood) - M(r)
Cornus alternifolia (Alternate-leaved Dogwood, Pagoda Dogwood) - M(u), P(r)
Cornus asperifolia (Roughleaf Dogwood) - CP(r)
Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood) - M, P, CP(c)
(Note Crataegus taxonomy is in a constant state of flux. The species names below are from Weakley's Flora (2011) except for C. flabellata, which could be one of about 5 species, and subject to change!)
Crataegus aestivalis (May Hawthorn, Mayhaw) - CP(u)
Crataegus alabamensis (Alabama Hawthorn) - P, CP(u)
Crataegus alleghaniensis (Alleghany Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus aprica (Sunny Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus berberifolia var. berberifolia (Barberry Hawthorn) - P, CP(u)
Crataegus berberifolia var. engelmannii (Barberry Hawthorn) - P, CP(u)
Crataegus boyntonii (Boynton Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus buckleyi (Buckley Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus calpodendron (Pear Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn) - M, P(r)
Crataegus collina (Chapman's Hill-thorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus colonica - P, CP(o)
Crataegus craytonii (Crayton Hawthorn) - M(r)
Crataegus crus-galli var. crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus crus-galli var. pyracanthifolia CP(u) Crataegus dodgei (Dodge Hawthorn) - M(r)
Crataegus flabellata (Fanleaf Hawthorn) - M(u), P(u), CP(o)
Crataegus intricata var. boyntonii (Boynton Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus intricata var. intricata (Entangled Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus intricata var. biltmoreana (Entangled Hawthorn) - M, P(u)
Crataegus iracunda (Red Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus lassa (Sandhill Hawthorn) - P, CP(u)
Crataegus macrosperma (Bigfruit Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus marshallii (Parsley Hawthorn) - P, CP(u)
Crataegus munda - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus pallens - M(r)
Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus pruinosa (Frosted Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Crataegus punctata (Dotted Hawthorn) - M(u)
Crataegus schuettei (Schuette's Hawthorn) - M(u)
Crataegus senta - M(u)
Crataegus spathulata (Littlehip Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(o)
Crataegus succulenta (Fleshy Hawthorn) - M(r)
Crataegus viridis (Green Hawthorn) - P(o), CP(u)
Crataegus visenda - P, CP(u)
Cyrilla racemiflora (Swamp Titi) - P(r), CP(c)
Diospyros virginiana (Common Persimmon) - M(u), P(c), CP(u)
Euonymus atropurpureus var. atropurpureus (American Wahoo, Burningbush) - M, P(r)
Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana (American Beech) - M(c), P(c), CP(u)
Fagus grandifolia var. grandifolia (American Beech) - M(c)
Frangula caroliniana (Carolina Buckthorn) - M, P(r)
Fraxinus americana (White Ash) - M(c), P(c), CP(o)
Fraxinus caroliniana (Carolina Ash) - P(r), CP(c)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash) - P(c), CP(u)
Fraxinus profunda (Pumpkin Ash) - M(r), P(r), CP(u)
Gordonia lasianthus (Loblolly Bay) - CP(c)
Halesia tetraptera var. monticola (Mountain Silverbell) - M(c)
Halesia tetraptera var. tetraptera (Common Silverbell) - M(c), P(o), CP(r)
Hamamelis virginiana (American Witchhazel) - M, P, CP(c)
Ilex ambigua (Carolina Holly) - M, P, CP(o)
Ilex amelanchier (Sarvis Holly) - CP(r)
Ilex cassine var. cassine (Dahoon) - CP(r)
Ilex collina (Long-stalked Holly) - M(vr)
Ilex coriacea (Large Gallberry, Big Gallberry) - CP(c)
Ilex decidua (Possumhaw, Deciduous Holly) - P, CP(c)
Ilex longipes (Georgia Holly) - P(r)
Ilex montana (Mountain Holly, Mountain Winterberry) - M(c), P(u)
Ilex myrtifolia (Myrtle Dahoon) - CP(u)
Ilex opaca var. opaca (American Holly) - M, P, CP(c)
Ilex vomitoria (Yaupon) - P(u), CP(c). Introduced in the Piedmont.
Juglans cinerea (Butternut) - M(o), P(r)
Juglans nigra (Black Walnut) - M(u), P(u), CP(o)
Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana (Eastern Redcedar) - M, P, CP(c)
Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola (Southern Redcedar) - CP(c)
Kalmia latifolia (Mountain Laurel) - M(c), P(u), CP(r)
Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweetgum) - M(r), P(c), CP(c)
Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip-poplar, Yellow-poplar, Tuliptree) - M, P, CP(c)
Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber-Tree) - M(c), P(o)
Magnolia fraseri (Fraser Magnolia) - M(c), P(r)
Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia, Bull-bay) - P, CP(u). Introduced in the Piedmont.
Magnolia macrophylla (Bigleaf Magnolia) - P(r)
Magnolia tripetala (Umbrella-Tree, Umbrella Magnolia) - M, P, CP(u)
Magnolia virginiana (Sweetbay) - P(r), CP(c)
Malus angustifolia (Southern Crabapple) - M, P, CP(u)
Malus coronaria (Sweet Crabapple) - M(o)
Morella cerifera (Wax Myrtle) - P(u), CP(c)
Morus rubra (Red Mulberry) - M, P, CP(u)
Nyssa aquatica (Water Tupelo) - CP(u)
Nyssa biflora (Swamp Tupelo, Swamp Blackgum) - P(r), CP(c)
Nyssa sylvatica (Blackgum, Black Tupelo, Pepperidge) - M, P, CP(c)
Osmanthus americanus (Devilwood, Wild Olive) - CP(u)
Ostrya virginiana (Hophornbeam) - M, P, CP(u)
Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood) - M, P, CP(c)
Persea borbonia (Redbay) - CP(r). Occurs on barrier islands north to Carteret Co.
Persea palustris (Swampbay) - CP(c). Occurs throughout the Coastal Plain.
Picea rubens (Red Spruce) - M(u)
Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine) - M(c), P(c), CP(o)
Pinus palustris (Longleaf Pine) - P(r), CP(u)
Pinus pungens (Table Mountain Pine) - M(u), P(r)
Pinus rigida (Pitch Pine) - M(u), P(r)
Pinus serotina (Pond Pine) - P(r), CP(c)
Pinus strobus (Eastern White Pine) - M(c), P(o)
Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) - P, CP(c)
Pinus virginiana (Virginia Pine) - M(c), P(c), CP(r)
Planera aquatica (Planertree, Water-Elm) - CP(o)
Platanus occidentalis (American Sycamore) - M(u), P(c), CP(u)
Populus deltoides ssp. deltoides (Eastern Cottonwood) - P, CP(o)
Populus grandidentata (Bigtooth Aspen) - M(r)
Populus heterophylla (Swamp Cottonwood) - P(r), CP(u)
Populus tremuloides (Quaking Aspen) - M(r)
Prunus alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis (Allegheny Plum) - M(r)
Prunus americana (American Plum) - M, P(u)
Prunus angustifolia (Chickasaw Plum) - P, CP(c)
Prunus caroliniana (Carolina Laurelcherry) - P(r), CP(u). Introduced in Piedmont.
Prunus pensylvanica (Pin Cherry) - M(u)
Prunus serotina var. serotina (Black Cherry) - M, P, CP(c)
Prunus umbellata (Hog Plum, Flatwoods Plum) - P, CP(o)
Prunus virginiana var. virginiana (Chokecherry) - M(r)
Ptelea trifoliata (Hoptree) - M, P, CP(o)
Quercus alba (White Oak) - M, P, CP(c)
Quercus austrina (Bluff Oak) - P, CP(r)
Quercus bicolor (Swamp White Oak) - P, CP(r)
Quercus coccinea (Scarlet Oak) - M(c), P(c), CP(u)
Quercus falcata (Southern Red Oak, Spanish Oak) - M(o), P(c), CP(c)
Quercus geminata (Sand Live Oak) - CP(u)
Quercus hemisphaerica (Sand Laurel Oak, Darlington Oak) - CP(c)
Quercus imbricaria (Shingle Oak) - M(o), P(r)
Quercus incana (Bluejack Oak) - P(r), CP(c)
Quercus laevis (Turkey Oak) - CP(c)
Quercus laurifolia (Laurel Oak) - CP(c)
Quercus lyrata (Overcup Oak) - P(o), CP(u)
Quercus margaretta (Sand Post Oak) - P(vr), CP(c)
Quercus marilandica var. marilandica (Blackjack Oak) - M(o), P(u), CP(c)
Quercus michauxii (Swamp Chestnut Oak) - P(u), CP(c)
Quercus muehlenbergii (Chinkapin Oak) - M, P(r)
Quercus nigra (Water Oak) - P(u), CP(c)
Quercus pagoda (Cherrybark Oak) - P(o), CP(c)
Quercus palustris (Pin Oak) - P(o)
Quercus phellos (Willow Oak) - P, CP(c)
Quercus prinoides (Dwarf Chinkapin Oak) - M, P(vr)
Quercus montana (Chestnut Oak) - M(c), P(u), CP(r)
Quercus rubra var. ambigua (Northern Red Oak) - M(c)
Quercus rubra var. rubra (Northern Red Oak) - M(c), P(c), CP(r)
Quercus shumardii (Shumard Oak) - M(r), P(u), CP(r)
Quercus stellata (Post Oak) - M(u), P(c), CP(c)
Quercus velutina (Black Oak) - M, P, CP(c)
Quercus virginiana (Live Oak) - CP(u)
Rhododendron catawbiense (Catawba Rhododendron) - M(c), P(o), CP(r)
Rhododendron maximum (Rosebay Rhododendron, Great Laurel) - M(c), P(o)
Rhus copallinum var. copallinum (Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac) - M, P, CP(c)
Rhus copallinum var. latifolia (Eastern Winged Sumac) - M(u)
Rhus copallinum var. leucantha (Southern Winged Sumac)
Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac) - M(c), P(c), CP(r)
Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac) - M(c), P(r)
Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust) - M, P, CP(c)
Sabal palmetto (Cabbage Palmetto) - CP(r)
Salix nigra (Black Willow) - M, P, CP(c)
Sassafras albidum (Sassafras) - M, P, CP(c)
Sorbus americana (American Mountain-Ash, American Rowan) - M(u), P(r)
Staphylea trifolia (American Bladdernut) - M, P, CP(u)
Stewartia malacodendron (Silky-Camellia) - M(r), P(r), CP(o)
Stewartia ovata (Mountain-Camellia) - M, P(r)
Styrax americanus (American Snowbell) - P(r), CP(u)
Styrax grandifolius (Bigleaf Snowbell) - P(u), CP(u)
Symplocos tinctoria (Sweetleaf) - M(u), P(r), CP(c)
Taxodium ascendens (Pond-cypress) - CP(c)
Taxodium distichum (Bald-cypress) - P(r), CP(c). Introduced in the Piedmont.
Tilia americana var. americana (American Basswood) - M(o), P(r)
Tilia americana var. caroliniana (Carolina Basswood) - P, CP(o)
Tilia americana var. heterophylla (White Basswood) - M(c), P(o), CP(r)
Toxicodendron vernix (Poison Sumac) - M(r), P(r), CP(u)
Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock) - M(c), P(r)
Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina Hemlock) - M(u), P(r)
Ulmus alata (Winged Elm) - M(r), P(c), CP(c)
Ulmus americana (American Elm) - M(r), P(u), CP(c)
Ulmus rubra (Slippery Elm) - M(c), P(c), CP(r)
Vaccinium arboreum (Sparkleberry, Farkleberry) - M(r), P(u), CP(c)
Viburnum cassinoides (Withe-rod) - M(c), P(r)
Viburnum nudum (Possumhaw Viburnum) - M(o), P(u), CP(c)
Viburnum prunifolium (Blackhaw) - M(o), P(u), CP(o)
Viburnum rufidulum (Rusty Blackhaw) - M(r), P(u), CP(u)
Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (Hercules' Club) - CP(o)

Naturalized Trees - about 72 species

Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple) - P(r)
Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) - M, P(r)
Aesculus hippocastanum (Horsechestnut) - M, P(r)
Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-heaven) - M, P, CP(c)
Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa, Silktree) - M, P, CP(c)
Albizia kalkora (Kalkora Mimosa) - P(r)
Betula populifolia (Gray Birch) - M(r)
Broussonetia papyrifera (Paper-mulberry) - M, P, CP (u)
Carya illinoinensis (Pecan) - P, CP(r)
Castanea mollissima (Chinese Chestnut) - M, P(r)
Catalpa bignonioides (Southern Catalpa) - M, P, CP (o)
Catalpa speciosa (Northern Catalpa) - M, P, CP (u)
Celtis sinensis (Chinese Hackberry) - P(vr)
Clerodendrum trichotomum (Harlequin Glorybower) - M, P(r)
Cunninghamia lanceolata (China-fir) - M, P(r)
Ficus carica (Fig) - P, CP(r)
Firmiana simplex (Chinese Parasoltree) - P, CP(r)
Frangula alnus (Glossy Buckthorn, European Alder-Buckthorn) - M(r)
Gleditsia triacanthos (Honeylocust) - M(o), P(u), CP(o)
Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky Coffeetree) - M, P(r)
Hibiscus syriacus (Rose of Sharon) - M, P, CP (o)
Hovenia dulcis (Japanese Raisintree) - P(r)
Ilex cornuta (Chinese Holly) - P(c)
Koelreuteria bipinnata (Golden Rain Tree) - P(r)
Koelreuteria paniculata (Golden Rain Tree) - P(r)
Lagerstroemia indica (Crape-myrtle) - P, CP(r)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese Privet) - P, CP(r)
Ligustrum lucidum (Glossy Privet) - P, CP(r)
Ligustrum ovalifolium (California Privet) - P, CP(r)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet) - M, P, CP(c)
Maackia japonica (Japanese Maackia) - P(vr)
Maclura pomifera (Osage-orange) - M, P, CP(r)
Malus pumila (Common Apple) - M, P, CP (o)
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry) - M(r), P(o), CP(c)
Morus alba (White Mulberry) - M, P, CP(u)
Paulownia tomentosa (Princesstree, Royal Paulownia) - M, P, CP(c)
Picea abies (Norway Spruce) - M(r)
Pinus clausa (Sand Pine) - CP(r)
Pinus elliottii var. elliottii (Slash Pine) - CP(r)
Pinus pinaster (Maritime Pine) - CP(r)
Pinus resinosa (Red Pine) - M(r)
Pinus thunbergiana (Japanese Black Pine) - CP(r)
Populus alba (White Poplar) - M, P, CP (u)
Populus ×canadensis [deltoides × nigra] (Hybrid Black Poplar) - (r)
Populus ×canescens [alba × tremula] (Gray Poplar) - (r)
Populus ×jackii [balsamifera × deltoides] (Balm-of-Gilead) - M(o)
Populus nigra (Lombardy Poplar) - (r)
Populus simonii (Chinese Poplar) - M(r)
Prunus avium (Sweet Cherry) - P(u)
Prunus cerasus (Sour Cherry) - M(r)
Prunus glandulosa (Flowering Almond) - CP(r)
Prunus mahaleb (Mahaleb Cherry) - M, P(r)
Prunus munsoniana (Wild Goose Plum) - P(r)
Prunus persica (Peach) - M, P, CP(u)
Pyrus calleryana (Callery Pear, Bradford Pear) - M, P, CP(u)
Pyrus communis (Common Pear) - M, P, CP(o)
Quercus acutissima (Sawtooth Oak) - P(vr)
Quercus variabilis (Chinese Cork Oak) - P(vr)
Rhamnus davurica (Dahurian Buckthorn) - P(r)
Salix alba (White Willow) - M, P(r)
Salix atrocinerea (Grey Willow, Common Sallow, Rusty Sallow, Olive-leaf Willow) - M(r)
Salix babylonica (Weeping Willow) - M, P, CP(o)
Salix caprea (Goat Willow) - M(r)
Salix cinerea (Grey Willow) - M, P, CP(r)
Salix pentandra (Laurel Willow, Bay Willow) - M, P(r)
Tamarix canariensis (Canary Island Tamarisk) - CP(o)
Tamarix chinensis (Chinese Tamarisk) - CP(r)
Tamarix gallica (French Tamarisk) - CP(r)
Tamarix parviflora (Smallflower Tamarisk) - CP(r)
Tamarix ramosissima (Saltcedar) - CP(u)
Torreya taxifolia (Florida Torreya) - M(r)
Triadica sebifera (Tallowtree) - CP(o)
Ulmus parviflora (Chinese Elm, Lacebark Elm) - P(o)
Ulmus procera (English Elm) - CP(r)
Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) - CP(r)

Trees | Shrubs | Woody Vines

Native Shrubs and Subshrubs - about 214 species

Agarista populifolia (Agarista, Florida Hobblebush) - CP(vr)
Amelanchier obovalis (Coastal Plain Serviceberry) - CP(u)
Amelanchier spicata (Running Serviceberry, Dwarf Serviceberry) - P(r), CP(o)
Amorpha fruticosa (Tall Indigo-bush) - M, P, CP(o)
Amorpha georgiana var. confusa (Savanna Indigo-bush) - CP(r)
Amorpha georgiana var. georgiana (Georgia Indigo-bush) - CP(r)
Amorpha glabra (Mountain False Indigo, Appalachian Indigo-bush) - M(o), P(r)
Amorpha herbacea var. herbacea (Dwarf Indigo-bush) - M(r), CP(u)
Amorpha schwerinii (Piedmont Indigo-bush) - P(r)
Aronia arbutifolia (Red Chokeberry) - M, P, CP(c)
Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) - M(c), P(r)
Aronia prunifolia (Purple Chokeberry) - M(o), P(r)
Arundinaria appalachiana (Hill Cane) - M(u), P(r)
Arundinaria gigantea (Giant Cane) - M(o), P(u), CP(c)
Arundinaria tecta (Switch Cane) - P(u), CP(c)
Asimina parviflora (Smallflower Pawpaw, Dwarf Pawpaw) - P, CP(u)
Baccharis angustifolia (Saltwater False-willow) - CP(r)
Baccharis glomeruliflora (Silverling) - CP(r)
Berberis canadensis (American Barberry) - M, P(r)
Borrichia frutescens (Seaside Oxeye) - CP(u)
Buckleya distichophylla (Piratebush) - M(r)
Callicarpa americana (American Beautyberry) - M(r), P(o), CP(c)
Calycanthus floridus var. floridus (Sweet Betsy, Hairy Sweet-shrub) - M, P(r)
Calycanthus floridus var. glaucus (Sweet Betsy, Smooth Sweet-shrub) - M, P, CP(u)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey-Tea) - M, P, CP(c)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (Common Buttonbush) - M(r), P(c), CP(c)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (Leatherleaf) - M(vr), CP(u)
Chimaphila maculata (Striped Pipsissewa, Striped Wintergreen) - M, P, CP(c)
Chimaphila umbellata ssp. cisatlantica (Pipsissewa) - P, CP(o)
Chrysoma pauciflosculosa (Woody Goldenrod) - CP(vr)
Clematis ochroleuca (Curlyheads) - M(vr), P(r)
Clethra acuminata (Mountain Sweet Pepperbush) - M(c)
Clethra alnifolia (Coastal Sweet Pepperbush) - CP(c), P(r)
Clinopodium georgianum (Georgia Calamint) - CP(r)
Comptonia peregrina (Sweetfern) - M(u), P(r), CP(r)
Cornus amomum (Swamp Dogwood, Silky Dogwood) - M, P, CP(u)
Cornus racemosa (Gray Dogwood) - P(vr)
Cornus stricta (Stiff Dogwood) - M(r), P(u), CP(u)
Corylus americana (American Hazelnut) - M(u), P(u), CP(o)
Corylus cornuta var. cornuta (Beaked Hazelnut) - M, P(u)
Crataegus uniflora (One-flowered Hawthorn, Dwarf Hawthorn) - M, P, CP(u)
Croton punctatus (Gulf Croton) - CP(u)
Cunila origanoides (American-dittany, Wild-oregano) - M(r), P(o), CP(r)
Decodon verticillatus (Swamp Loosestrife, Water-willow) - CP(u)
Diervilla lonicera (Northern Bush-honeysuckle) - M(r)
Diervilla rivularis (Hairy Southern Bush-honeysuckle, Riverbank Bush-honeysuckle) - M(vr)
Diervilla sessilifolia (Smooth Southern Bush-honeysuckle) - M(o)
Dirca palustris (Eastern Leatherwood) - M, P(r)
Ditrysinia fruticosa (Gulf Sebastian-bush) - CP(r)
Epigaea repens (Trailing Arbutus) - M(c), P(u), CP(u)
Eubotrys racemosa (Swamp Doghobble, Coastal Fetterbush) - M(r), P(u), CP(c)
Eubotrys recurva (Mountain Fetterbush, Red-twig Doghobble) - M(c), P(r)
Euonymus americanus (Hearts-a-bustin', American Strawberry-bush) - M, P, CP(c)
Euonymus obovatus (Running Strawberry-bush) - M(o)
Fothergilla gardenii (Dwarf Witchalder, Coastal Witch-alder) - CP(o)
Fothergilla major (Mountain Witchalder) - M, P(r)
Galax urceolata (Galax) - M(c), P(u), CP(o)
Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen, Teaberry) - M(c), P(r), CP(o)
Gaylussacia baccata (Black Huckleberry) - M(c), P(u), CP(o)
Gaylussacia bigeloviana (Northern Dwarf Huckleberry) - CP(r)
Gaylussacia brachycera (Box Huckleberry) - P(vr) - discovered for first time in NC in 2003
Gaylussacia dumosa (Dwarf Huckleberry) - M(o), P(o), C(c)
Gaylussacia frondosa (Dangleberry, Blue Huckleberry) - P(o), CP(c)
Gaylussacia nana (Dwarf Dangleberry) - CP(vr)
Gaylussacia orocola (Blue Ridge Bog Huckleberry) - M(vr)
Gaylussacia tomentosa (Hairy Dangleberry) - CP(r)
Gaylussacia ursina (Bear Huckleberry) - M(o)
Hudsonia montana (Mountain Golden-heather) - M(r)
Hudsonia tomentosa (Woolly Beach-heather) - CP(r)
Huperzia appressa (Appalachian Firmoss) - M(r)
Huperzia lucidula (Shining Firmoss, Shining Clubmoss) - M(c), P(o)
Huperzia porophila (Rock Clubmoss) - M(r)
Hydrangea arborescens (Wild Hydrangea, Smooth Hydrangea) - M(c), P(o), CP(r)
Hydrangea cinerea (Ashy Hydrangea) - M, P(o)
Hydrangea radiata (Silverleaf Hydrangea) - M(o), P(r)
Hypericum buckleyi (Buckley's St. Johnswort, Granite Dome St. Johnswort) - M(r)
Hypericum cistifolium (Roundpod St. Johnswort) - CP(c)
Hypericum crux-andreae (St. Andrew's-Cross, St. Peter's-Wort) - M(r), P(r), CP(c)
Hypericum densiflorum (Bushy St. John's-Wort) - M(c), P(r), CP(u)
Hypericum fasciculatum (Peelbark St. Johnswort) - CP(o)
Hypericum galioides (Bedstraw St. Johnswort) - CP(c)
Hypericum hypericoides (St. Andrew's-Cross) - M(u), P(c), CP(c)
Hypericum lloydi (Sandhill St. John's-Wort, Lloyd's St. John's-Wort) - P, CP(u)
Hypericum nitidum (Carolina St. Johnswort) - CP(r)
Hypericum nudiflorum (Early St. John's-Wort) - M, P, CP(c)
Hypericum prolificum (Shrubby St. John's-Wort) - M(u), P(u), CP(r)
Hypericum stragulum (St. Andrew's-Cross) - M(c), P(c), CP(u)
Hypericum suffruticosum (Pineland St. John's-wort) - CP(r)
Hypericum tenuifolium (Atlantic St. Johnswort, Sandhill St. John's-Wort) - CP(u)
Ilex glabra (Inkberry) - P(r), CP(c)
Ilex laevigata (Smooth Winterberry) - CP(u)
Ilex verticillata (Common Winterberry) - M, P, CP(u)
Itea virginica (Virginia Sweetspire) M(o), P(o), CP(u)
Iva frutescens var. frutescens (Southern Maritime Marsh-elder) - CP(u)
Iva frutescens var. oraria (Northern Maritime Marsh-elder) - CP(o)
Iva imbricata (Dune Marsh-elder) - CP(u)
Juniperus communis var. depressa (Common Juniper, Ground Juniper, Mountain Juniper) - M, P(r)
Kalmia angustifolia (Sheep Laurel) - CP(vr) - discovered for first time in NC in 2005
Kalmia carolina (Carolina Laurel, Southern Sheepkill) - M(r), CP(c)
Kalmia cuneata (White Wicky) - CP(r). Endemic to the Carolinas.
Leiophyllum buxifolium (Sandmyrtle) - M(u),P(r),CP(o)
Leucothoe axillaris (Coastal Doghobble) - P(r), CP(c)
Leucothoe fontanesiana (Mountain Doghobble) - M(c), P(o)
Lindera benzoin var. benzoin (Smooth Northern Spicebush) - M(c), P(r)
Lindera benzoin var. pubescens (Hairy Northern Spicebush) - M, P, CP(c)
Lindera melissifolia (Pondberry, Southern Spicebush) - CP(r)
Lindera subcoriacea (Bog Spicebush) - P, CP(r)
Litsea aestivalis (Pondspice) - CP(r)
Lonicera canadensis (American Fly Honeysuckle) - M(r)
Lycopodiella alopecuroides (Foxtail Clubmoss) - P(r), CP(c)
Lycopodiella appressa (Southern Bog Clubmoss) - M(r), P(r), CP(c)
Lycopodiella caroliniana (Slender Clubmoss) - CP(o)
Lycopodiella inundata (Northern Bog Clubmoss) - M(vr)
Lycopodiella prostrata (Featherstem Clubmoss) - CP(r)
Lycopodium clavatum (Running Clubmoss) - M(o)
Lycopodium dendroideum (Tree Ground-pine) - M(r)
Lycopodium digitatum (Running-cedar, Fan Ground-pine) - M, P, CP(c)
Lycopodium hickeyi (Pennsylvania Ground-pine) - M(r)
Lycopodium obscurum (Common Ground-pine) - M(u), P(r), CP(r)
Lycopodium tristachyum (Blue Running-cedar, Ground-cedar) - M(o), P(r)
Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora (Southern Maleberry) - P(r), CP(c)
Lyonia ligustrina var. ligustrina (Northern Maleberry) - M(c), P(u), CP(u)
Lyonia lucida (Shining Fetterbush) - CP(c)
Lyonia mariana (Staggerbush) - P(u), CP(c)
Manfreda virginica (Rattlesnake-master, Eastern False-aloe) - M(r), P(o), CP(r)
Morella caroliniensis (Southern Bayberry) - P(r), CP(c)
Morella pensylvanica (Northern Bayberry) - CP(o)
Morella pumila (Dwarf Wax-myrtle, Dwarf Bayberry) - CP(c)
Myrica gale (Sweetgale) - M(vr)
Nestronia umbellula (Nestronia) - P(r), CP(vr)
Opuntia humifusa var. humifusa (Eastern Prickly-pear) - M(r), P(r), CP(c)
Opuntia pusilla (Dune Prickly-pear) - CP(u)
Opuntia stricta var. stricta (Erect Prickly-pear) - CP(r)
Pachysandra procumbens (Allegheny-spurge) - P(vr)
Paxistima canbyi (Canby's Mountain-Lover) - M(r)
Philadelphus hirsutus (Hairy Mock-Orange) - M(r)
Philadelphus inodorus (Scentless Mock-Orange) - M(o), P(o), CP(r)
Phoradendron leucarpum (Oak Mistletoe, American Mistletoe) - M(o), P(u), CP(c)
Physocarpus opulifolius (Eastern Ninebark) - M(c), P(o)
Pieris floribunda (Mountain Andromeda, Mountain Fetterbush) - M(o), P(r)
Polygonella polygama var. croomii (Carolina October-flower) - CP(r)
Polygonella polygama var. polygama (Common October-flower) - CP(u)
Prunus pumila var. susquehanae (Appalachian Sand Cherry) - M, P(r)
Pyrola americana (Rounded Shinleaf) - M, P, CP(r)
Pyrola elliptica (Elliptic Shinleaf, Waxflower Shinleaf) - M(vr)
Pyrularia pubera (Buffalo Nut) - M(c), P(o)
Pyxidanthera barbulata (Common Pyxie-moss) - CP(u)
Pyxidanthera brevifolia (Sandhills Pyxie-moss, Littleleaf Pyxie-moss) - CP(r)
Quercus elliottii (Running Oak) - CP(r)
Quercus ilicifolia (Bear Oak) - P(vr)
Quercus minima (Dwarf Live Oak) - CP(r)
Rhododendron arborescens (Smooth Azalea) - M(c), P(u), CP(r)
Rhododendron atlanticum (Dwarf Azalea) - CP(c)
Rhododendron calendulaceum (Flame Azalea) - M(c), P(r)
Rhododendron canescens (Florida Pinxter Azalea, Wild Azalea) - CP(o)
Rhododendron carolinianum (Carolina Rhododendron) - M(u)
Rhododendron cumberlandense (Cumberland Azalea) - M(vr)
Rhododendron minus (Dwarf Rhododendron) - M(c), P(r), CP(r)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (Pink Azalea, Pinxter Flower) - M, P, CP(c)
Rhododendron pilosum (Minniebush) - M(u), P(r) - formerly Menziesia pilosa
Rhododendron prinophyllum (Early Azalea, Election Pink) - M(vr)
Rhododendron vaseyi (Pinkshell Azalea) - M(r). Endemic to NC
Rhododendron viscosum (Swamp Azalea) - M(c), P(u), CP(c)
Rhus aromatica var. aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) - M(vr), P(o), CP(vr)
Rhus michauxii (Michaux's Sumac) - P, CP(r)
Ribes cynosbati (Eastern Prickly Gooseberry, Dogberry) - M(u)
Ribes glandulosum (Skunk Currant) - M(o)
Ribes rotundifolium (Appalachian Gooseberry) - M(u)
Robinia hartwigii (Granite Dome Locust, Hartwig's Locust) - M(r)
Robinia hispida var. fertilis (Arnot Bristly Locust) - M(vr)
Robinia hispida var. hispida (Bristly Locust) - M(c), P(u), CP(o)
Robinia hispida var. kelseyi (Kelsey's Bristly Locust) - M(r)
Robinia hispida var. rosea (Boynton's Bristly Locust) - M(r)
Robinia nana (Dwarf Bristly Locust) - M(r), P(r), CP(o)
Robinia viscosa (Clammy Locust) - M, P, CP(r). Native only to the mountains.
Rosa carolina (Carolina Rose) - M(c), P(c), CP(o)
Rosa palustris (Swamp Rose) - M, P, CP(c)
Rosa setigera (Climbing Rose, Prairie Rose) - M, CP(r). May be introduced.
Rubus allegheniensis (Allegheny Blackberry) - M(c), P(u)
Rubus argutus (Saw-tooth Blackberry, Southern Blackberry) - M, P, CP(c)
Rubus canadensis (Smooth Blackberry) - M(c)
Rubus cuneifolius (Sand Blackberry) - P(u), CP(c)
Rubus flagellaris (Northern Dewberry) - M, P, CP(c)
Rubus hispidus (Bristly Dewberry, Swamp Dewberry) - M(c), P(r), CP(u)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (Red Raspberry) - M(r)
Rubus occidentalis (Black Raspberry) - M(c), P(u), CP(o)
Rubus odoratus (Flowering Raspberry) - M(c)
Rubus trivialis (Southern Dewberry) - M(r), P(u), CP(c)
Sabal minor (Dwarf Palmetto) - CP(u)
Sageretia minutiflora (Small-flowered Buckthorn) - CP(vr)
Salicornia virginica (Virginia Glasswort) - CP(u)
Salix caroliniana (Coastal Plain Willow, Carolina Willow) - M(r), P(o), CP(c)
Salix humilis (Upland Willow, Prairie Willow) - M, P, CP(u)
Salix occidentalis (Dwarf Upland Willow, Sage Willow) - M, P, CP(u)
Salix sericea (Silky Willow) - M(u), P(u), CP(r)
Sambucus canadensis (Common Elderberry) - M, P, CP(c)
Sambucus racemosa var. pubens (Red Elderberry) - M(u)
Selaginella acanthonota (Spiny Spikemoss, Sand Spikemoss) - CP(o)
Selaginella apoda (Meadow Spikemoss) - M,P,CP(c)
Selaginella rupestris (Rock Spikemoss) - M(c),P(o)
Selaginella tortipila (Twisted-hair Spikemoss) - M(u),P(r)
Shortia galacifolia var. brevistyla (Northern Shortia) - P(vr). Endemic to McDowell Co., NC.
Shortia galacifolia var. galacifolia (Oconee Bells) - M(r)
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (Three-toothed Cinquefoil) - M(r)
Sideroxylon lycioides (Buckthorn Bumelia, Buckthorn Bully) - CP(o), P(r)
Sideroxylon tenax (Tough Bumelia, Tough Bully) - CP(vr)
Spiraea alba (Narrowleaf Meadowsweet) - M(u)
Spiraea corymbosa (Dwarf Spiraea, Rock Spiraea) - M, P(r)
Spiraea latifolia (Broadleaf Meadowsweet) - M(u)
Spiraea tomentosa (Steeplebush, Hardhack) - M(c), P(r)
Spiraea virginiana (Virginia Meadowsweet) - M(r)
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Coralberry) - M(u), P(u), CP(r)
Taxus canadensis (Canada Yew) - M(vr)
Toxicodendron pubescens (Atlantic Poison-Oak) - P(o), CP(u)
Vaccinium caesariense (New Jersey Highbush Blueberry) - CP(r)
Vaccinium corymbosum (Smooth Highbush Blueberry) - M(c), P(r)
Vaccinium crassifolium (Creeping Blueberry) - P(r), CP(c)
Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's Blueberry) - P(r), CP(c)
Vaccinium erythrocarpum (Bearberry, Highbush Cranberry, Southern Mountain Cranberry) - M(u)
Vaccinium formosum (Southern Highbush Blueberry) - CP(c)
Vaccinium fuscatum (Black Highbush Blueberry) - M(c), P(c), CP(c)
Vaccinium hirsutum (Hairy Blueberry) - M(r)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry) - M(r), CP(r)
Vaccinium myrtilloides (Velvetleaf Blueberry) - M(r)
Vaccinium pallidum (Hillside Blueberry) - M(c), P(c), CP(o)
Vaccinium simulatum (Mountain Highbush Blueberry) - M(c)
Vaccinium stamineum (Deerberry) - M(c), P(c), CP(c)
Vaccinium tenellum (Small Black Blueberry) - P(u), CP(c)
Vaccinium virgatum (Swamp Blueberry, Smallflower Blueberry) - CP(vr)
Viburnum acerifolium (Maple-leaf Viburnum) - M(u), P(u), CP(r)
Viburnum carolinianum (Carolina Arrow-wood) - M(o)
Viburnum dentatum var. dentatum (Southern Arrowwood) - P, CP(u)
Viburnum dentatum var. semitomentosum (Carolina Arrowwood) - M, P(o)
Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum (Smooth Arrowwood) - M(r), P(o), CP(o)
Viburnum lantanoides (Hobblebush) - M(u)
Viburnum rafinesquianum (Downy Arrowwood) - P(c)
Xanthorhiza simplicissima (Yellowroot) - M(c), P(c), CP(u)
Yucca aloifolia (Aloe Yucca, Spanish Bayonet) - CP(u)
Yucca filamentosa (Adam's Needle, Bear-Grass) - M(u), P(u), CP(c)
Yucca flaccida (Weakleaf Yucca) - M, P, CP(r)
Yucca gloriosa (Moundlily Yucca) - CP(r)
Zanthoxylum americanum (Common Prickly-ash) - M(r)
Zenobia pulverulenta (Zenobia, Honeycups) - CP(u)

Naturalized Shrubs - about 79 species

Aucuba japonica (Aucuba, Japanese-laurel, Spotted-laurel) - P(r)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese Barberry) - M(u), P(o)
Berberis vulgaris (European Barberry, Common Barberry) - M(r)
Buddleja davidii (Orange-eye Butterfly-bush) - M, P(r)
Buddleja lindleyana (Lindley's Butterfly-bush) - M, P, CP(r)
Callicarpa dichotoma (Chinese Beautyberry) - M, P, CP(o)
Callicarpa japonica (Japanese Beautyberry) - P(r)
Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Japanese Plum-yew) - P(r)
Citrus trifoliata (Trifoliate Orange, Hardy Orange) - P(r)
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch Broom) - M(r), P(o), CP(o)
Danae racemosa (Alexandrian Laurel, Poet's Laurel) - P(r)
Deutzia scabra (Fuzzy Pride-of-Rochester) - M(r)
Elaeagnus multiflora (Cherry Silverberry) - M(r)
Elaeagnus pungens (Thorny-Olive, Silverthorn) - P, CP(u)
Elaeagnus umbellata var. parvifolia (Autumn-Olive, Silverberry) - M, P, CP(c)
Erica tetralix (Cross-leaved Heath) - CP(r)
Euonymus alatus (Winged Burning Bush) - M, P, CP(r)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese Spindle-tree) - CP(r)
Hydrangea quercifolia (Oakleaf Hydrangea) - (r)
Hypericum frondosum (Cedarglade St. Johnswort) - M(r)
Ilex crenata (Japanese Holly) - M, P(r)
Lantana camara (Lantana) - CP(r)
Lantana urticoides (West Indian Lantana) - CP(r)
Lespedeza bicolor (Shrubby Lespedeza) - M, P, CP(c)
Lespedeza thunbergii (Thunberg's Lespedeza) - M, P, CP(r)
Ligustrum amurense (Amur Privet) - P(r)
Ligustrum obtusifolium (Border Privet) - P, CP(o)
Ligustrum quihoui (Wax-leaved Privet) - CP(r)
Ligustrum vulgare (European Privet) - P, CP(r)
Lonicera ×bella (morrowii × tatarica) (Pretty Honeysuckle) - P(r)
Lonicera fragrantissima (Sweet-breath-of-spring) - P, CP(o)
Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) - P, CP(o)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's Honeysuckle) - M(o), P(r)
Mahonia bealei (Leatherleaf Mahonia) - P, CP(o)
Nandina domestica (Nandina, Heavenly-Bamboo) - P, CP(o)
Opuntia monacantha (Common Prickly-pear) - CP(r)
Osmanthus heterophyllus (Holly Osmanthus) - P(vr)
Pachysandra terminalis (Japanese Pachysandra) - P(r)
Philadelphus coronarius (Sweet Mock-Orange) - P(r)
Phyllostachys aurea (Golden Bamboo, Fishpole Bamboo) - P, CP(u)
Phyllostachys bambusoides (Giant Timber Bamboo, Japanese Timber Bamboo) - M, P, CP(r)
Phyllostachys meyeri (Meyer's Bamboo) - (r)
Polygonum cuspidatum [Reynoutria japonica] (Japanese Knotweed) - M, P, CP(o)
Polygonum sachalinense [Reynoutria sachalinensis] (Giant Knotweed) - M(r)
Pseudosasa japonica (Arrow Bamboo) - (r)
Pyracantha coccinea (Scarlet Firethorn) - P, CP(r)
Ribes rubrum (Cultivated Currant) - M(r)
Ribes uva-crispa (European Gooseberry) - (r)
Rosa bracteata (Macartney Rose) - P(r)
Rosa canina (Dog Rose) - M(r)
Rosa ×damascena (Damask Rose) - M(r)
Rosa eglanteria (Sweetbriar Rose) - M(r)
Rosa gallica (French Rose) - M(r)
Rosa laevigata (Cherokee Rose) - (r)
Rosa micrantha (Small-flowered Sweetbriar) - M, P, CP(o)
Rosa multiflora (Multiflora Rose) - M, P, CP(c)
Rosa wichuraiana (Memorial Rose) - P, CP(o)
Rubus bifrons (Himalayan Berry) - M(c), P(o), CP(o)
Rubus idaeus ssp. idaeus (Cultivated Red Raspberry) - M(r)
Rubus illecebrosus (Strawberry Raspberry) - M(r)
Rubus laciniatus (Cutleaf Blackberry) - M, P(r)
Rubus phoenicolasius (Wineberry) - M(c), P(o)
Salix discolor (Pussy Willow) - P(r)
Salix purpurea (Basket Willow, Purple Osier Willow) - M(r)
Sesbania punicea (Rattlebox) - CP(c)
Selaginella braunii (Treelet Spikemoss, Braun's Spikemoss) - CP(r)
Selaginella kraussiana (Krauss's Spikemoss, Mat Spikemoss) - CP(r)
Spiraea japonica (Japanese Meadowsweet) - M(c), P(o)
Spiraea prunifolia (Bridalwreath Spirea) - CP(r)
Spiraea salicifolia (Willowleaf Meadowsweet) - M(r)
Spiraea thunbergii (Thunberg's Meadowsweet) - CP(r)
Spiraea trilobata var. trilobata (Asian Meadowsweet, Three-lobed Spiraea) - P(vr)
Spiraea ×vanhouttei [cantoniensis × trilobata] - P(r)
Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus (Pacific Snowberry) - P(r)
Thymus praecox ssp. arcticus (Mother of Thyme) - P(r)
Viburnum plicatum (Doublefile Viburnum, Japanese Snowball) - P(r)
Viburnum rhytidophyllum (Leatherleaf Viburnum) - M(vr)
Viburnum setigerum (Tea Viburnum) - P(vr)
Vitex agnus-castus (Lilac Chastetree) - P(r)

Trees | Shrubs | Woody Vines

Native Woody Vines - 41 species

Ampelopsis arborea (Peppervine) - M(vr), P(vr), CP(c)
Ampelopsis cordata (Heartleaf Peppervine) - M, P(r)
Aristolochia macrophylla (Pipevine, Dutchman's Pipe) - M(c)
Berchemia scandens (Supplejack) - P(r), CP(c)
Bignonia capreolata (Crossvine) - M(r), P(c), CP(c)
Campsis radicans (Trumpet Creeper) - M(u), P(c), CP(c)
Celastrus scandens (American Bittersweet) - M(o), P(r)
Clematis catesbyana (Satin-curls, Coastal Virgin's-bower) - M, CP(r)
Clematis crispa (Swamp Leatherflower) - P(r), CP(c)
Clematis glaucophylla (White-leaved Leatherflower) - M, P(r)
Clematis occidentalis var. occidentalis (Purple Clematis, Mountain Clematis) - M(vr)
Clematis viorna (Northern Leatherflower, Vasevine) - M(c), P(c), CP(r)
Clematis virginiana (Virgin's-bower) - M(c), P(o), CP(r)
Cocculus carolinus (Carolina Coralbeads, Carolina Moonseed) - P, CP(o)
Decumaria barbara (Climbing Hydrangea, Woodvamp) - M(r), CP(u)
Gelsemium rankinii (Swamp Jessamine) - CP(r)
Gelsemium sempervirens (Carolina Jessamine) - P(u), CP(c)
Lonicera dioica (Limber Honeysuckle, Red Honeysuckle) - M(r)
Lonicera flava (Yellow Honeysuckle) - M(r)
Lonicera sempervirens var. hirsutula (Trumpet Honeysuckle) - M, P(r)
Lonicera sempervirens var. sempervirens (Trumpet Honeysuckle) - P, CP(c)
Menispermum canadense (Common Moonseed) - M, P, CP(u)
Mitchella repens (Partridgeberry) - M (c), P(u), CP(u)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia Creeper) - M, P, CP(c)
Schisandra glabra (Star-Vine) - CP(vr)
Smilax auriculata (Earleaf Greenbrier, Dune Greenbrier) - CP(u)
Smilax bona-nox (Saw Greenbrier, Catbrier) - M(o), P(c), CP(c)
Smilax glauca (Whiteleaf Greenbrier, Catbrier) - M, P, CP(c)
Smilax hispida (Bristly Greenbrier) - M, P, CP(u)
Smilax laurifolia (Laurel Greenbrier) - P(o), CP(c)
Smilax rotundifolia (Roundleaf Greenbrier, Horsebrier) - M, P, CP(c)
Smilax smallii (Lanceleaf Greenbrier) - CP(o)
Smilax walteri (Coral Greenbrier) - P(r), CP(u)
Thyrsanthella difformis (Climbing Dogbane) - P, CP(u)
Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans (Eastern Poison-Ivy) - M, P, CP(c)
Vitis aestivalis var. aestivalis (Summer Grape) - M, P, CP(c)
Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor (Summer Grape) - M(c), P(r)
Vitis cinerea var. baileyana (Possum Grape) - M, P(c)
Vitis cinerea var. floridana (Florida Grape) - P(r), CP(o)
Vitis labrusca (Fox Grape) - M(c), P(o), CP(o)
Vitis rotundifolia var. rotundifolia (Muscadine Grape, Scuppernong) - M(u), P(c), CP(c)
Vitis vulpina (Frost Grape) - M, P, CP(c)
Wisteria frutescens (American Wisteria) - P(r), CP(u)

Naturalized Woody Vines - 20 species

Akebia quinata (Five-leaf Akebia, Chocolate Vine) - M, P(r)
Ampelopsis aconitifolia (Monkshoodvine) - P(r)
Aristolochia tomentosa (Woolly Dutchman's Pipe) - M(r) - introduced, but native as close as Tennessee
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Porcelainberry, Amur Peppervine) - P, CP(o)
Cayratia japonica (Bushkiller) - P(vr)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental Bittersweet) - M(c), P(u), CP(r)
Clematis terniflora (Sweet Autumn Clematis) - M, P, CP(u)
Euonymus fortunei var. radicans (Winter Creeper) - P(u)
Hedera colchica (Persian Ivy) - P(r)
Hedera helix (English Ivy) - M(o), P(u), CP(o)
Hedera hibernica (Atlantic Ivy, Irish Ivy) - P(r)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle) - M, P, CP(c)
Lycium barbarum (Common Matrimony Vine) - M, P, CP(r)
Lycium chinense (Chinese Matrimony Vine) - M, P, CP(r)
Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston-Ivy) - P(r)
Polygonum baldschuanicum [Fallopia baldschuanica] (Silver Lace-vine, Chinese Fleece-vine) - M(r)
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) - M, P, CP(c)
Vinca major (Greater Periwinkle, Bigleaf Periwinkle) - M, P, CP(o)
Vinca minor (Common Periwinkle) - M, P, CP(c)
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese Wisteria) - M, P, CP(r)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese Wisteria) - P, CP(c)

Trees | Shrubs | Woody Vines

Radford, AE, HE Ahles, and CR Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Weakley, AS. 2011. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States ( UNC Herbarium, Chapel Hill, NC.

Common Trees of the North Carolina Piedmont

What is a tree?

There is no real clear-cut difference between a tree and a shrub, but to have a tree list you need to make the distinction. The definition here is the same as in the American Forestry Association's Big Tree Register (2000): a woody plant having one erect perennial stem or trunk at least 9.5 inches in circumference (3 inches in diameter) at 4.5 feet above the ground (breast height), a definitely formed crown of foliage, and a height of at least 13 feet. Source: EL Little, Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States Trees (Native and Naturalized). U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 541.


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