Athenian Law

 

Terms


Terms: To begin, we shall bulldoze our way through a slim textbook, learning basics, mastering facts. Then we'll take a straightforward short-answer test (Data Dump). [See syllabus] Some terms follow...


Hansen, pp27-43

  • Archaic period
  • Eupatridai (Eupatrids)
  • archon
  • eponymous archon
  • Kylon (Cylon)
  • Acropolis
  • Drakon (Draco)
  • Solon
  • Aristotelian AthPol ("Constitution of the Athenians")
  • tyrannos (tyrant)
  • hoplites/-ai (hoplite)
  • Peisistratos (Pisistratus)
  • Hippias
  • Harmodios and Aristogeiton
  • Kleisthenes (Cleisthenes)
    • council of 500
    • tribes
    • demes
    • division of Attica: map
    • scheme
    • generals
    • ostracism
  • tribes
  • demes
  • prytanis (prytany)
  • Stratêgos /-oi (generals)
  • Ostracism
  • Persian Wars
  • Classical Period
  • Peiraieus (Piraeus)
  • Delian League - Athenian Empire
  • Areopagos
  • Ekklêsia (Assembly)
  • Boulê (Council)
  • Perikles (Pericles)
  • popular courts
  • Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
  • 411 BC Council of 400 / of 5000
  • 410 BC Democracy restored
  • revision of laws 410-399 BC
  • Thirty Tyrants
  • 403 BC Amnesty, and again
  • fourth century

MacDowell ch.1-4

  • Themes: (1) Randomness, (2) Amateurism, (3) Mistrust of power, (4) Individual Competition and State Institutions
  • Homer, Iliad and Odyssey
  • (h)istor = 'knower' / judge
  • Shield of Achilles
  • agôn, agonistic
  • Arkhon (Archon)
  • Archon Basileus
  • Polemarch
  • 6 Thesmothetai
  • Areopagos
  • (H)eliaia
  • [Aristotle] AthPol = Athênaiôn Politeia = AP = Constitution of the Athenians
  • Ephesis
  • Anakrisis
  • Jury Pay
  • Allotment
  • Drakon (Draco)
  • Solon
  • Thesmos
  • Nomos
  • Psêphisma
  • Reinscription
  • 403/2 BC: restoration of democarcy, amnesty, series of watershed reforms
  • Metroon
  • Nomothetai
  • Agora: public open space, seat of government, law, religion
  • graphê paranomôn
  • Ho boulomenos
  • In a law: magistrate, who can bring charge, procedure, penalty
  • Dikê idia
  • Dikê dêmosia
  • Graphê
  • Dikai or dikai idiai = private
  • Dikai dêmosiai or graphai = public
  • Dikai/graphai
    • D: injured / G: ho boulomenos
    • D: can be settled / G: once in motion...
    • D: no harm in loss / G: 1/5th rule
    • D: 'smaller' juries / G: larger
    • D: time limit / G: all day
    • D: plantiff's stake / G: none
    • D: victor executes / G: magistrate
  • Other 'public' actions: Apagogê (means: hauling away), Endeixis (pointing out), Apographê (declaration in writing), Phasis (saying), Eisangelia (announcement), Dokimasia (verification by test), Euthyna (straightening out)
  • Sycophant, sycophancy

MacDowell ch.5, 6, 9

  • Themes: (5) Who is in and who is out; (6) Scope of state's reach in private affairs
  • politês (pl. -ai) = citizen (someone with a share of the polis, "city-state")
  • xenos (pl. -oi) = alien
  • doulos (pl. -oi) or oiketês (pl. -ai) = slave
  • Perikles' citizenship law 451/0 BC
  • Deme
  • Dokimasia
  • graphê xenias = suit claiming illegal exercise of cz rights
  • atimia = 6th c. outlawry...5th c. disfranchise, or temporary in case of debts
  • Metic = Gr. metoikos (pl. -oi) = resident alien
  • enktêsis = right to own land
  • prostatês (pl. -ai) = metic's 'sponsor'
  • metic tax (metoikion)
  • "remove someone to freedom"
  • Kyrios = master of house, legal 'guardian'
  • oikos (pl. -οι) = house, household
  • engyê = contract of pledge to marry
  • gamos = wedding
  • dowry
  • divorce
  • pallakê (pl -ai) = live-in concubine
  • hetaira (pl -ai) = generic or high-class or long-term-engagement prostitute
  • pornê (pl -ai) = common prositute
  • paternity
  • legitimacy
  • epiklêros (pl -oi) = dtr of man with no male heirs
  • inheriting
    • intestate succession
    • adoption
    • diadikasia = adjudication of competing claim(s) to inherit
  • property: sale, lease, loan
  • nomos metallikos = mining law
  • dikai metallikai = mining suits (suits brought under previous)
  • horos = stone marking lien
  • dikê klopês = private suit for theft
  • kakourgoi = 'evildoers' !
  • dikê blabês = private suit for damages
  • dikê exoulês = private suit for ejectment

MacDowell ch.10-11, 13-14

  • Themes: (7) Scope of state's reach in markets, taxation, military, policing of corruption; (8) procedure vs substance; (9) evolution of mechanisms; (10) soft definitions
  • agora
  • Peiraieus (or Piraeus)
  • agoranomoi = market controllers
  • emporion = harbor area where wholesale happened
  • mandatory military service
  • dokimasia = review of eligibility
  • criminal cowardice
  • liturgy (leitourgia / -ai)
    • Khorêgos / Chorêgos (pl -oi)
    • Trierarch (trireme = military vessel)
    • Eisphora
    • proeisphora
  • Antidosis = property exchange
  • prytany = 1/10th of the year
  • regular review of debts to state
    • prosecution by apographê
    • disfranchised (atimia) till paid up
  • Review of Officials
    • dokimasia
    • apocheirotonia = no confidence vote held in Ekklesia
    • eisangelia = impeachment for misconduct tried by Boulê
    • Euthyna = review at close of term
  • Corruption
    • bribes
    • vote buying
    • false witness
    • lying in Assembly, or even ineligbility to speak
  • Tyranny / subversion (insider takes)
  • Betrayal (insider gives to outsider)
  • Misleading the People (Assembly), speaking under bribe
  • Informing
  • Eisangelia
  • Execution by Council (Boulê)
  • Investigation by Areopagus
  • Private Arbitration (cannot appeal)
  • Public Arbitration (can appeal)
  • Deme judges, lapse; Thirty judges
    • => Tribe judges aka The Forty
  • Diamartyria = formal assertion of fact to a magistrate
  • dikê pseudomartyriôn = private suit for false testimony
  • Paragraphê = counter-charge of illegal prosecution

MacDowell ch.15-16

  • symbola = treaties
  • polemarch
  • xenodikai
  • nautodikai
  • mercantile cases (dikai emporikai)
  • monthly cases
  • Find the right magistrate
    • archon
    • basileus
    • polemarch
    • thesmothetai
    • the Eleven
    • various (e.g. market) officials
    • Tribe judges (The Forty)
  • summons
  • anakrisis = preliminary hearing with magistrate
  • Evidence
    • law
    • no hearsay
    • no women and children
    • could compel witness
    • dikê pseudomartyriôn = private suit for false testimony
    • slaves
    • basanos = torture
  • Trial
    • private: 2 speeches each
    • public: 1 speech each; lasts all day, prosecution, defense, penalty assessment
    • speechwriter
    • synêgoros (pl -oi) = assisting speaker
    • voting
    • agôn timêtos = penalty not fixed but proposed/argued