[image of digits]
NIQ EZIO A/D D/A Converter
Embarcadero C++ Builder
Realworld Interfacing with Sensors & Actuators

Analog-to-Digital (AD), Digital-to-Analog (DA) conversions with Data Acquisition Modules (DAQs)

Sensors - Actuators - Encoders - Steppers - Switches - Pneumatics - Realworld Interfacing - Circuit Bending - Robots
FlipDots - NCDOT
- FlipDots - Luminator

NIQ EZIO A/D D/A Converter
Sampling Considerations

 

Sampling the Realworld

How do we perceive the static status of the realworld?
How do we perceive dynamic changes of events?

EZIO AD/DA Converter Board Fundamentals
panic button
The "Panic Button" will
turn everything OFF !!!

EZIO Board Details
EZIO Reed Relay Board Schematic as Distributed

The examples on this page make use of RS-232 serial communications to drive the EZIO board. It is connected to the COM1 port through a DB9 cable.

In order to switch more power, the ten (10) digital outputs are fed into a reed relay board. In order to maximize any one type of input or output, some or all of the digital outputs may be used to switch banks of sensors or actuators. The wiring and coding grows slightly more complex but no further components are required.

Modifying the Reed Relay Board
EZIO Reed Relay Board Partially Blank Schematic

As it was distributed, the EZIO Reed Relay Board may be simply wired to control 2 uniphase stepper motors, the 4 positive outputs going to the ends of the coil windings on each motor. The center taps are joined and connected to the grounded common. This uses 8 of the 10 digital outputs.

If you change the wiring to connect the 4 positive outputs in parallel to each of the ends of the coil windings on 6 motors, you can select which of the six motors you wish to activate by connecting the center taps through each of the remaining 6 relays to the grounded common. Notice that the reed relays are no longer grouped together, but separated into a bank of 4 (for the positive connections) and 6 (for the grounded commons). See the schematic for 6 motors.

As the relay board was distributed, you can control 10 digital outputs. If you modify the relay board, you can devote 5 digital outputs to 5 actuators, you can use the remaining 5 digital outputs to choose from among a maximum of 5 banks of 5, for a total of 25 digital outputs.

As the relay board was distributed, you can control 2 pulse-width-modulated "analog" outputs. If you modify the relay board you can use the 10 digital outputs to switch a maximum of 10 banks of 2, for a total of 20 pwm outputs.

As the relay board was distributed, you can control 10 digital inputs. If you modify the relay board, you can use the 10 digital outputs to switch a maximum of 10 banks of 10, for a total of 100 digital inputs.

As the relay board was distributed, you can control 8 analog inputs. If you modify the relay board, you can use the 10 digital outputs to switch a maximum of 10 banks of the 8, for a total of 80 analog inputs.

EZIO Board Communications Characteristics.
You can create a 1 kHz tone.

I/O Command Read/Writes
per Second
Seconds
per Read/Write
Output Write 1 Digital Port Alone 1000w/s 1ms
Write 8 Digital Ports as 1 Byte 1000w/s 1ms
Write Pulse-Width-Modulation ?w/s ?ms
Input Read 1 Digital Port Alone ?r/s ?ms
Read 8 Digital Ports as 1 Byte ?r/s ?ms
Read 1 Analog Port as 1 Byte 100r/s 10ms

A USB alternative to EZIO:
B&B Electronics USB Data Acquisition System:
Plug N Play Reading of Up to 16, 000 Samples/Second

THE BOARD ACCEPTS ASCII MESSAGES AND RETURNS ASCII RESULTS.
initialize your serial port to: 57600 bps, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity bit
to get an analog
to digital conversion:
send out "A" (ascii 65) 
send out line number as ASCII character, range= 0 through 7 
read back the result, which will be an ASCII char from 0 to 255
to read a single input line: send out "r" (ascii 114) 
send out line number as ASCII character, range=0 through 9 
read back the result, which will be an ASCII char, either 0 or 1.
to read the first eight input
lines as an 8-bit port:
send out "R" (ascii 82) 
read back the result, which will be an ASCII char from 0 to 255 
to write a single output line: send out "w" (ascii 119) 
send out line number as ASCII character, range=0 through 9 
send out the state as an ASCII char, either 0 for off or 1 for on
to write the first eight output lines as an 8-bit port: send out "W" (ascii 87) 
send out the state as an ASCII char from 0 to 255 
to set the pulse-width-modulation duty cycle (PWM): send out "P" (ascii 80) 
send out line number as ASCII character, range=0 through 1 
send out the duty cycle as two chars/bytes, high byte first, then low byte, to make a 10-bit number (zero through 1023) 
For example: to set the duty cycle to 100% (full on), send out ascii 03 in the high byte, followed by ascii 255 in the low byte. 

Visit the EZIO Official Site

Universal EZIO Controller
Controlls all EZIO functions except for the Analog Out (Pulse Width Modulation).

Win8 XE6 EZIO Controller
19-November-2014 (Requires an USB to RS-232 converter and additional coding.)
This application controls all the common features of the EZIO realworld interface board. It exercises the 10 digital outputs, 10 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs. It does not control the 2 pulse-width -modulated (PWM) outputs or control addressing 7 ports with a single byte. For more information about the relay board please go to our EZIO page.

XP EZIO Controller
This application controls all the common features of the EZIO realworld interface board. It exercises the 10 digital outputs, 10 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs. It does not control the 2 pulse-width -modulated (PWM) outputs or control addressing 7 ports with a single byte. For more information about the relay board please go to our EZIO page.

 

EZIO Universal Controller

Essentials
Recompiled 10 April 2012
This application controls all the common features of the EZIO realworld interface board.
It exercises the 10 digital outputs, 10 digital inputs and 8 analog inputs.
It does not control the 2 pulse-width -modulated (PWM) outputs or control addressing 7 ports with a single byte.
For more information about the relay board please go to our EZIO page.

InfraRed Theremins

2009 - Theremin
Matthew Slayton
ALiCE Fall 2009
A two-sensor application.

thereminTheremin
leon theremin Leon Theremin
theremin

2006 - Theremin
Nanae Kido & Andrew Folick
ALiCE Fall 2006
A two-sensor, two-instrument, record and play back forward or reverse enhancement...

theremin

2006 - Theremin
Andrew Liu, Laura Zhang, Ryan Huang & Subby Bhatia. ALiCE Fall 2006
A two-sensor, two-pitch enhancement...

theremin

2005 - Theremin
Theremin is an EZIO-controlled interface to the MIDI synthesizer. It uses an EZIO real-world data acquisition module to convert infrared rangefinder data to notes on the keyboard. The raw sensor data and MIDI note are shown and the sensor data is plotted. The speed at which the sensor is interrogated is variable and the user may select any one of some 100 MIDI instruments.

InfraRed Animations

EZIO Jennifer
"Here's looking at you, kid." Two infrared rangefinders capture the viewer's position and Jennifer's gaze. Her gaze can also be directed by the arrow keys. The "end" key stops her from looking around. The "home" key returns her gaze straight ahead. (Don't go crazy with the arrow keys - there is a narrow boundary between the intriguing and the grotesque!)

JoyStick Animations

FAST EZIO Joystick
Inspired by a dance floor simulation, this application uses the joystick to move a shape (in violet) across the screen. Depending on where it is, it and the other objects change shape and color. A joystick is the input device on analog terminals 1 and 2, but any realworld analog sensor will do. You may have to play with the numbers to get the desired effect.


Konsole control panel


Not that there is much consistency in color-coding the wires in a parallal printer cable,
but here's an attempt based upon cables from CompUSA:

Component EZIO Color-Code
POWER +5 volts Pink w/white stripe (paired with pink w/yellow stripe). -or-
Pink (paired with pink w black stripe).
GROUND GND: White (paired with white w/black stripe).
Joystick "X" Analog In #1 Brown w/white stripe (paired with brown).
Joystick "Y" Analog In #2 Pink w/red stripe (paired pink w/blue stripe).
Joystick "Z" Analog In #3 White w/black stripe (paired with white).
Left switch Digital In #1  
Center switch Digital In #2  
Right switch Digital In #3  
Rocker switch "+" Digital In #4  
Rocker switch "-" Digital In #5  
Left LED Digital Out #1  
Center LED Digital Out #2  
Right LED Digital Out #3  

Konsole control panel DB25 connector terminals.
SAB BROCKSKES Long Cable and Male DB25 Connector

SAB BROCKSKES Long Cable and Male DB25 Connector:

Pin number viewed from the outside and wire color code. If two colors are given, for example "red gray", they should be interpreted as "red on gray."

1
White
2
Brown
3
Blue
4
Red
5
Yellow
6
Gray
7
Violet
8
Red
Gray
9
Brown
Gray
10
Pink
White
11
Brown
Pink
12
Blue
White
13
Green
White

14
Black

15
Green
16
Green
Brown
17
White
Yellow
18
Pink
19
Green
Brown
20
Blue
Red
21
Brown
Yellow
22
Gray
White
23
Red
White
24
Red
Brown
25
Black
White
 
 

 

Laser Animations
International Laser Display Association
ILDA Image Data Transfer Format, Version 1
ILDA Image Data Transfer Format, Version 2

Wikipedia on the Lissajous Curve
Magnet Lab Lissajous Simulator
Animated Lissajous Figures
Mathematik Lissajous Lab

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Laser Galvanometer Pair

Salvaged from a Pioner Laser Disk player, this set of positionable x, y mirrors guided a red Helium/Neon laser beam to the grooves on the disk. Each coil is 8 ohms and the mirrors are coated with a dichroic film of gold, which provides a maximum reflection of red light at an angle of 45 degrees. The coils for these two mirrors may be driven by the two EZIO pulse-width-modulation (PWM) terminals. With some programming perserverence a person should be able to create some interesting vector graphics imagery.

Stepper Motor Drivers

CNCzone.com (Nicola)

The only purpose of a "voltage rating" is to give an idea of what is the maximum power supply voltage the motor should be run at.
The ultimate limit is the motor case temperature. This limit will be approached (85C) when the supply voltage is around 20 times the motor's rated voltage.
This is an empirical number based on lab tests; it may not exactly apply to your motor but it will be close.
To simplify, the higher the supply voltage the greater the the power output from the motor. However, the higher the supply voltage the hotter the motor will be. Again, the limit to all this is the rated maximum temp of the motor.
The overdrive ratio (20 times the motor's rated voltage) is based on the unipolar voltage. I based it on that since most motors are 6-wire and I thought that would be the most helpful for the majority of people.

PacSci rates their motors at a 65V max limit. PacSci is a class act that never indulges in specmanship. This limit is to guarantee the windings will not arc at max temp and destroy a drive in the process.
PacSci motors are the Rolls-Royces of step motors; they give realist specs and limits most other mfgs won't to make their motors look better then they are.
Observe that limit.

Mariss Freimanis (extracted from post dated 12.11.2003 at http://www.cnczone.com/forums/diy-cnc_router_table_machines/2334-stepper_motor_voltage_vs_current.html)

Stepper Motor Theory A unipolar stepping motor usually has 6 lead wires with a center tap on each of two windings. In use, the center tap of the windings are typically wired to the positive supply, and the two ends of each winding are alternately grounded to reverse the direction of the field provided by that winding. A bipolar motor is constructed with exactly the same mechanism as is used on unipolar motors, but the two windings are wired more simply, with no center tap. Thus, the motor itself is simpler but the drive circuitry needed to reverse the polarity of each pair of motor poles is more complex.x

Yaskawa Linear Stepper Motor Driver - Version 2 - 4/18/2011

This requires two 6-volt batteries. The shorted red and black alligator clips are connected to the appropriate poles of two SEPARATE batteries. Do NOT connect them to the SAME battery. The separated red and black alligator clips are connected to the remaining terminalsFor detail on how this linear stepper motor is wired, go here.

This exercises the Yaskawa linear stepper motor. The motor contains three coils as shown in the schematic at left. Each of the three coils may be energized in two ways, yielding six possible combinations which may be individually selected by the six buttons. Keeping the Green central terminal Negative, the terminals Yellow, Orange & Blue can be set Positive and will yield a 3-phase activation sequence. I we switch the polarities, setting the Green central terminal Positive and the peripheral teminals Negative, we can add another 3 intermediate steps yielding a 6-phase activation sequence. Other activation sequences are possible but have not been implemented.

The intertial mass of the carraige needs to be considered when tuning the system. The correct starting and ending phases need to be determined for runs in both directions. The duration of the activation of each coil needs to be adjusted, and this can be done by setting the delay between phases or steps in milliseconds. Additionally, the non-activation "dead-time" may also need to be considered, but this has not been introduced.

EZIO Two Stepper Controller
for Omnilux, dancers, etc.

Recompiled 10 April 2012

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The two stepper-motors in each unit control the yaw and pitch of the housing which contains an optical emitter and receiver. The lenses have been removed. The "home" yaw positions of all of the units are at right angles to one another.

WARNING:
There are no sensors to detect the "home" positions of either yaw or pitch. There is a pitch sensor switch at the elevated limit position (which has not been tapped into) but none at the depressed limit. There are no limit sensors for the two yaw extremes. Therefore, be careful not to strip the gears at these limits. The pitch range is 220 steps, so it is safe to operate from plus to minus 100 steps from center. The yaw range is 2722 steps (almost 360 degrees) so it is safe to operate from plus to minus 1300 steps from center. The center pitch position can be estimated. The center yaw position is marked.

Omnilux Four-Unit Scanner Assembly

The motor appears to have been built to custom specifications and is marked: "STP-42D1015 1.8 degree / 3.8 ohm." A similar Shinano Kenshi motor is rated at 3.7 volt, .95 amps, 3.9 ohm. The wiring is shown below:

Each of the two motor windings is center tapped.

Orange 8 ohms 8 ohms Yellow
4 ohms 4 ohms
Black White
4 ohms 4 ohms
Brown Red*


New cables have been prepared to drive the stepper motors directly from the EZIO and relay boards. Be sure to match the colors on the 6-prong connectors and keep the painted markings on the 4-prong connectors "up."


The circuit board contains a PIC microcontroller.

The IR emitter and detector are at the extremem ends of the board.

The Bally "Virtual" Slot Machine Reel

assemblyxxxxxnotches
Note the two rings of notches on the inside of the reel.
There are 22 notches on the outer ring and 1 notch on the inner ring.
These are read by the two "U"-shaped optical interruptors at the center of the circuit board.
Wikipedia on
"Virtual Reel"
technology.

The motor is a 2-phase, 1.8 degree, 16 volt, 0.4 amp stepper.
Specifications for similar motors are here and here.


The front of the board is shown in its mounted position. The motor driver ICs are at left and right.
The top optical interruptor detects the home notch.
The bottom optical interruptor detects each of 22 icon notches.


The back of the board is shown in its mounted position. The wiring traces are clearly visible.
Function
EZIO Logic
Physical Connection
Wire color code
Power
VCC - Power for logic
+5V for sensors
EZIO +5 volts
Red
GND - Ground
GND for sensors
EZIO GND (0 volts)
Gray
VMM - Power for motors
Battery +
External 6-volt lantern battery
Yellow
Blue or Green
GND - Ground
Battery -
Gray
Red
Sensors
22 per Revolution Interruptor (16.36d)
Digital In 1
EZIO
Address
read 0
Brown
Black
1 per Revolution Interruptor (360d)
Digital In 2
EZIO
Address
read 1
Brown
White
Actuators
Motor - Coil 1
Digital Out 1
EZIO
Address
write 0
Brown
Red
Motor - Coil 2
Digital Out 2
EZIO
Address
write 1
Brown
Motor Coils 1&2 - I0
Digital Out 3
EZIO
Address
write 2
Brown
Green
Motor Coils 1&2 - I1
Digital Out 4
EZIO
Address
write 3
Brown
Yellow
The wire color coding may vary from reel to reel.


Stepper motor driver chip PBL 3770A (data sheet).
Note:
If I0 & I1 are wired together and EZIO write 2 & 3 are combined (selecting 100% power),
only 3 digital outputs are needed per motor
and the EZIO board can accommodate all 3 reels.

Bally Slot Machine Reel - Version 3 - November 2009

The software has been improved.
More intuitive names have been given to the variables and functions.
Code has been added to seek out and keep track of the current icons.
Remember that there are 22 optical notches and only 11 "Flaming 7" icons.

The speed of the reel is limited by the EZIO device.

Bally Slot Machine Reel - Caleb Seeley

This application will not run without the EZIO and reel attached. The action is converted into a game...

Bally Slot Machine Reel - Version 2 - 2009

Did you ever wonder how slot machine payoffs can be adjusted? The answer: They are under computer control, which means the reels themselves are under computer control. Yes, the computer stops the reel where it decides to stop it. When, in the course of play, the computer makes that decision, is unknown and may affect the perceived "fairness" from the player's perspective. The slot machine is built to provide suspense. But precisely when does the computer make the decision as to where to stop the reels? When the lever is pulled, or a few seconds after? Materially, it makes no difference. But if one believes that one can "will" the reels to stop at a win, the first option provides no time to make that happen, whereas the second option provides a window of opportunity. Does this make a difference in a cultural, moral or legal sense in deciding whether this is "entertainment" or "deception?"

Note the two rings of notches on the inside of the reel. There are 22 notches on the outer ring and 1 notch on the inner ring. These are read by the two "U"-shaped optical interruptors at the center of the circuit board. The single notch designates the "home" position while each of the 22 notches designate the position of an icon on the wheel. Some icon sets may occupy two notches.

2009 Version: Can stop at any of the 22 notched positions past "win:"



Bally Slot Machine Reel - 2006

Did you ever wonder how slot machine payoffs can be adjusted? The answer: They are under computer control, which means the reels themselves are under computer control. Yes, the computer stops the reel where it decides to stop it. The computer makes that decision instantaneously. The players thrive on what the computer will give them: suspense. But just when does the computer make the decision as to where to stop the reels? When the lever is pulled, or a few seconds after? Materially, it makes no difference. But if one believes that one can "will" the reels to stop at a win, the first option provides no time to make that happen, whereas the second option provides a window of opportunity. Does this then make a difference in a cultural, moral or legal sense in deciding whether this is "entertainment" or "deception?"


Wikipedia on "Virtual Reel" technology.

2006 Version:

 

Dial Telephones

EZIO Telephone - Serena Qiu

This application will not work without the EZIO device and rotary telephone. The sound files must also be downloaded separately and placed in the same folder as the executable. The application uses three separate windows.

The sound files have been internatlized into the application. The opening sound file is incompatible with PlaySound(MAKEINTRESOURCE(100), HInstance, SND_RESOURCE) and cuts off at the beginning. However, it will play outside the application. So if you want to hear it in its entirety, it is included below:

EZIO Telephone - Katherine Buse

This application has been designed to work with or without the EZIO device and rotary telephone. The sound files have been embedded into the executable.

The sound files have been internatlized into the application. The opening sound file is incompatible with PlaySound(MAKEINTRESOURCE(100), HInstance, SND_RESOURCE) and cuts off at the beginning. However, it will play outside the application. So if you want to hear it in its entirety, it is included below:

EZIO Telephone - Version 3 - November 2009

The sound files have been embedded into the executable.
A telephone directory has been added.
A WheelDown in the directory will play Arnold's message.
Defines have been created.
Randomize() has been added.
To Do: Clean up the code and let the monitoring run in the background.

If you open the Zipped project files, you will have to create your own sound resource file,
put it in your project folder and add it to your project.
You may use this one:

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EZIO Telephone

This application monitors three switches, the handset "hook," the "dial in use" (clockwise turn of the dial) and the dialing pulse itself.
The ringer may also activated using a pager vibrator to shake the striker for the bells.
Sound files are played back to the handset receiver depending on the 7-digit number that the user dials.
If the user dials her name her photo appears on the screen.
Some numbers dialed will result in a specific or random .wav sound message being returned to the handset.
In this application, the ,wav files are OUTside of the application.
In any new application that you build, move the .wav files INside your application. (See this method.)

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Try dialing these numbers:

Home: 4551630
Alia: 2542793
Daniel A.: 3264352
Daniel K.: 3264355
Olga: 6542027
ARNOLD: 2766537

The sound files must be in the same directory as the executable file.

 


Telephone Connections:
BLACK
EZIO & Audio GND
Ground for all.
Ground for all.
YELLOW
EZIO DIGITAL IN 1
hook (normally ???)
hook (normally ???)
GREEN
EZIO DIGITAL IN 2
Dial in Use, cocked to the right (normally ???)
Dial in Use, cocked to the right (normally ???)
BLUE
EZIO DIGITAL IN 3
Dial Pulsing, released and turning to the left (pulses open)
Dial Pulsing, released and turning to the left (pulses open)
RED
DIGITAL and/or RELAY OUTPUT 1
Pager Motor Substituted for Ringer (or)
Sonalert wired directly to EZIO
WHITE
AUDIO OUT
Computer Speaker to Handset Receiver
Not used.
6 Volt Battery Connections:
RED
+
to Relay Board Terminal COM
Earpiece wired directly to miniplug
BLACK
-
to EZIO Terminal GND
Earpiece wired directly to miniplug

Miscellaneous

XP EZIO Stepper IR Scanner
This application uses two stepper motors and an IR sensor to scan a 3d scene and create an image based upon distance. Because of the large step size, the "camera" is equivalent to a wide angle lens. The IR sensor does not provide a linear output with respect to distance. (See the specifications sheet.) Consequently an LUT (Look-Up-Table) has been constructed to provide an appropriate gray-scale mapping. The "image" is a portrait of the author.

Make sure to follow the wiring diagram. (Here's a larger one.)
Press RESET if anything goes wrong!

XP EZIO Stepper Color (RGB) Scanner
This application uses two stepper motors and 3 photo-sensitive resistors (originally with red, green and blue filters) to scan a scene and create an image. Because of the large view of each sighting tube, the "camera" is equivalent to a wide angle out-of-focus lens. Three trackbars are provided to adjust the color balance.

Make sure to follow the wiring diagram. (Here's a larger one.)
Press RESET if anything goes wrong!

XP EZIO Stepper Accelerator
It is now so fast that we need to put the application to "Sleep()" to slow it down. The EZIO digital outputs may be addressed 1 at-a-time or 7 at-a-time. This requires either 2-bytes-per-step or 12-bytes-per-step (respectively). The optimized 2-byte code is so fast and Sleep() is so slow that there is no effective difference between the 2 and 12-byte protocols if one uses Sleep(). When using the 12-byte protocol, bypassing Sleep() by setting its argument to Sleep(0) is fast enough: two revolutions in one second.

Note: Addressing 7 digital outputs at a time using the 12-bytes-per-step protocol effectively wastes 3 outputs, since only 4 are needed to run the motor.

Make sure to follow the wiring diagram. (Here's a larger one.)
Press RESET if anything goes wrong!

EZIO Dancers - 15 Novmeber 2012
Revised for Embarcadero and Windows XP, this application controls two stepper motors with a figure mounted on top of each. It is now so fast that we need to force the application to "doodle" (Canvas->Pixels[][]) to slow it down. This application choreographs the movements of two figures in a routine called "ciao." Functions move the figures together or in opposite directions and generate gestures. The speed can be set with the "delay" slider. "Whirl" uses a cos() function to smoothly vary the speed.

For the ER1 robot, a short delay is required. The coil sequence is RED, GREEN, BLUE, BLACK. Since the motors are mounted pointed in opposite directions, "together" results in opposite (turn) and "opposite" results in together (forward/backward).

Press RESET if anything goes wrong!

EZIO Stepper Basics
Some basic functions to operate the VEXTA C4041 stepper motor using the EZIO board. Coils are activated in four phases.

Reset brings the motors into a synchronized position.
Release keeps the battery from draining and the motors cool.
Motor selects one of two steppers.
Forward and Reverse move either motor one step.

Make sure to follow the wiring diagram. (Here's a larger one.)
Press RESET if anything goes wrong!

Miscellaneous

EZIO Joystick and Infrared Sensor Example
Please make the following connections:

  • RED to +5V for Sensors
  • BLACK to Gnd for Sensors
  • YELLOW IR to A/D 0
  • YELLOW POT to A/D 1
  • GREEN POT to A/D 2

The raw values of the Yellow and Green pots in the Joystick are displayed and used to move the rectangular Shape components. The raw value of the IR Sensor is displayed and used to color the circular Shape component. Double Buffering is used to prevent flicker.

FAST EZIO Color Mixer
In this application the three additive primaries (red, green and blue) may be mixed using either the slider bars in the application or sensors connected to the EZIO board. Potentiometers are a logical beginning for the three sensors, but any realword analog sensor will do. Sensors must be connected to analog terminals 1 (red), 2 (green) and 3 (blue).

boticelli

FAST EZIO Botticelli
An example of how you might dynamically alter a .bmp image with external controls. In this instance, the red, green and blue values are either incremented or decremented by +/- 10 depending upon the positions of three potentiometers. There are 16,777,216 different renderings possible and the image may never return to its original appearance. Pots are attached to analog terminals 1-3.

Images: Cestello (at left) Buck Rodgers Pistol
Ziegler Components Abstract Shapes Segregation Shapes
quickstep

FAST EZIO Quickstep
Inspired by the desire to visualize and analyze human walking and running gaits, this application monitors four switches (good for quadrupeds), knows when their status has changed, and plots their state on the screen. Switches are attached to digital input terminals 1-4.

chimes

EZIO Chimes
The EZIO activates eight solenoids that strike eight notes on a wind chimes. Two infrared sensors pick up the viewer's distance. Each solenoid requires 110VAC and draws .9Amps, consuming 10-watts. The solenoids are switched through reed relays.

Function
Wire Color Code
+V - Supply Voltage
Red
0V - Circuit Ground
Black
A - Channel A
Yellow
B - Channel B
Blue

2006 - BEI Encoder
This sensor is capable of monitoring angles as small as 1000 per revolution (3.6d each). It does so by providing two stepped signals A and B, one lagging one quarter cycle behind the other. From this lag the direction may be determined and cycles may be counted to determine the full angle.

Specification Sheets

digitizer

EZIO Digitizer
The EZIO reads the analog out put of two potentiometers. One gives the angle and the other the distance to a stylus. From these the location of the stylus can be computed. The device was originally made by BBN.

Computer Instrument Corporation, Model 206, rotary 1.11 kOhm
potentiometer: 2-Pink, 3-Blue, 4-Green (slide).

Data Equipment Company, Model Rho-Theta, linear 2.68 kOhm potentiometer: 7-Red, 8-Black, 9-Yellow (slide).

faux midi

FAST EZIO Faux Midi
Using the electronics from a cheap toy guitar, this application plays chromatic notes using a simple random algorithm through digital output terminals 1-10. Reed relays are used to change the high/low EZIO signals and contact closures for the toy.

Votrax Speech Synthesis
Vocal division of Federal Screw Works

The Votrax phoneme chart is based upon
the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

VOTRAX
The Votrax, by Federal Screw Works, is one the earliest speech synthesizers. It offered both text-to-speech and phoneme-based synthesis. In this application, ASCII streams are sent out of the COMM1 RS-232 Serial Port at 9600 baud. Votrax sounds similar to the voice (subsequently modified with SFX) of WOPR in the 1983 Sci-Fi movie WAR GAMES. The text may be mangled to refine the pronunciation or phonemes may be inserted into the stream, the phonemic symbols delimited between a "~" and a "?" Use the "Say this" featue to text pronunciations before enering them in code.