Hypertextual Finance Glossary
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- Fifth letter of a Nasdaq stock descriptor specifying that issue is the Class B shares of the company.
- An Internet strategy of dealing directly with businesses, rather than consumers, i.e. business to (2) business.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.
- See: Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienst-leistungsaufsicht.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bosnia & Herzegovinan Convertible Mark.
- See: Bank anticipation notes
- See: Builders' All Risk
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BARBADOS.
- The ISO
4217 currency code for Barbadian Dollar.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BANGLADESH.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bangladeshi Taka currency.
- BDI (1)
- SEE: Baltic Dry Index
- BDI (2)
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BURUNDI.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BELGIUM.
- See: Boston Exchange Automated Communication Order-Routing Network
- See: Bonds Enabling Annual Retirement Savings (BEARS)
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Belgian Franc.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BELGIUM.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BENIN.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BURKINA FASO.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BURKINA FASO.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BULGARIA.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BANGLADESH.
- The pre-July 1999 ISO 4217 currency code for Bulgarian Lev.
- The current ISO 4217 currency code for Bulgarian Lev.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BULGARIA.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BAHRAIN.
- See: Bank Holding Company.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bahrainian Dinar.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BAHRAIN.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BAHAMAS.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BURUNDI.
- See: Bank Investment Contract
- BIF (1)
- See: Bank Insurance Fund
- BIF (2)
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Burundian Franc.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.
- See: Buyin management buyout
- See: Basis point.
- See: Bank for International Settlements
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BENIN.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for SAINT BARTHELEMY.
- See: Baskets of Listed Depositary Receipts
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for SAINT BARTHELEMY.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BELARUS.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BELIZE.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BERMUDA.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bermudan Dollar.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BERMUDA.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BRUNEI DARUSSALAM.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Brunei Darussalam Dollar.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BOLIVIA.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bolivian Boliviano.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BOLIVIA.
- See: Build Own Transfer
- See: Basis point.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BRAZIL.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BRAZIL.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BARBADOS.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Brazilian Real.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BRUNEI DARUSSALAM.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BAHAMAS.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bahamas Dollar.
- See: Boston Stock Exchange
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BHUTAN.
- See: Bitcoin.
- See: Book to market value.
- BTN (1)
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Bhutan Ngultrum.
- BTN (2)
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BHUTAN.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BOUVET ISLAND.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BOUVET ISLAND.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BOTSWANA.
- The three-character ISO 3166 country code for BOTSWANA.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Botswanan Pula.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BELARUS.
- The ISO 4217 currency code for Belarus Rouble.
- The two-character ISO 3166 country code for BELIZE.
The ISO 4217
currency code for Belize Dollar.
- A rating within speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated B1 are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is Ba3. Rating one notch lower is B2
- A rating within speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated B2 are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is B1. Rating one notch lower is B3
- A rating within speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated B3 are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is B2. Rating one notch lower is Caa1
- The highest rating of speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Ba1 are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is Baa3. Rating one notch lower is Ba2
- The second highest rating of speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Ba2 are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is Ba1. Rating one notch lower is Ba3
- The third highest rating of speculative grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Ba1 are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.
Rating one notch higher is Ba2. Rating one notch lower is B1
- The eighth highest rating in Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Baa1 are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Rating one notch higher is A3. Rating one notch lower is Baa2
- The ninth highest rating in Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Baa2 are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Rating one notch higher is Baa1. Rating one notch lower is Baa3
- The lowest rating of investment grade Moody's Long-term Corporate Obligation Rating.
Obligations rated Baa3 are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Rating one notch higher is Baa2. Rating one notch lower is Ba1
- Baby bond
- A bond with a par value of less than $1000.
- Back away
- In the context of general equities, to withdraw from a previously declared interest, indication, or transaction; broker-dealer's
failure, as a market maker in a given
security, to make good on a bid/offer for the minimum quantity.
- Back fee
- The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.
- Back months
- In the context of futures and options trading, refers to the months of contracts with expiration dates farthest away. See farthest month.
- Back office
- Brokerage house clerical operations that support, but do not include, the trading of stocks and other securities. All
written confirmation and settlement
of trades, record keeping, and regulatory compliance happen in the back office.
- Back on the shelf
- In the context of general equities, permanently canceled order/interest in a stock by a customer. See: Take a powder.
- Back taxes
- Due taxes that have not been paid on time.
- Back up
- (1) When bond yields rise and prices fall, the market is said to back up. (2) An investor who swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity is said to back up.
- Back up the truck
- In the context of general equities, "Prepare for a very large buyer."
- In the context of mutual funds, a
feature allowing fundholders to use an earlier date on a letter of intent to invest in a mutual fund in exchange for a reduced sales charge, e.g. Giving retroactive value to purchases from the earlier date. In the context of corporate governance, the illegal practice of setting the date of options awarded as part of executive compensation to a period when the stock price was very low (rather than setting the date of the options on the date the award was made).
- Backdoor listing
- See Going public through the backdoor..
- Backed in
- In the context of general equities, to describe the result of unanticipated
events that allow for a purchase at a discount or a sale at a premium.
- Back-end load fund
- A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from 4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a designated length of time, such as one year. The commission decreases, the longer the investor holds the shares. The formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or CDSC
- Creating a hypothetical portfolio performance history by applying current asset selection criteria to prior time periods.
- Back-to-back financing
- An intercompany loan channeled through a
- Back-to-back loan
- A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's
currency for a specific time period
and repay the other's currency at an agreed-upon maturity.
- Backup line
- A commercial paper issuer's bank line of credit covering maturing notes if, for some reason, selling new notes to cover the maturing notes is not possible.
- Backup Line of Credit
- A bank assurance of funds obtained by an issuer of commercial paper to protect the CP investor from default. The issuer pays a commitment fee to the bank.
- Backup Withholding
- Withholding of a certain amount of investment income (e.g. interest, dividends) by banks and other businesses under conditions such as missing Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or under directions from the IRS. Also see: TEFRA, W-8, W-9.
- A market condition in which futures prices are lower in the distant delivery months than in the nearest delivery month. This may occur when the costs of storing the product until eventual delivery are effectively subtracted from the price today. The opposite of contango.
- Bad bank
- A government owned entity that takes over and liquidates toxic assets from failed or declining financial institutions to leave them with a clean balance sheet. The strategy was last used during the Savings and Loan crisis of 1980s where this entity was called the Resolution Trust Corporation.
- Bad debt
- A debt that is written off and deemed uncollectible.
- Bad delivery
- Antithesis of good delivery.
- Bad title
- Title to property that does not distinctly confer ownership, usually in the context of real estate.
- Two-sided market picture, in Japanese terminology applies mainly to international equities.
- A capital infusion offered to a business with a national or multi-national footprint that is in danger of bankruptcy, insolvency, or total liquidation. Financial aid can be provided in the form of debt or equity offerings, cash contributions, or some form of loan or line of credit, and is often accompanied by greater government oversight and regulation. The failure of a business that employs thousands or plays an influential role in the economy potentially can send shock waves throughout the entire economy, including other industries. The credit crisis that began in 2007 created numerous failures around the world, which resulted in a large number of government-sponsored bailouts in almost every industry across the globe. See: Conservator, Conservatorship.
- Bailing out
- In the context of securities, refers
to selling a security or commodity quickly, regardless of the price. May occur when an investor no longer wants to sustain further losses on a stock.
Also refers to relieving an individual, corporation, or government entity in financial trouble.
- Bailout bond
- A bond issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation (Refcorp) to save the failing savings and loan associations in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
- Baker Plan
- A plan by former U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker under which 15 principal middle-income debtor countries (the Baker 15) would undertake growth-oriented structural reforms, to be supported by increased financing from the World Bank and continued lending from commercial banks.
- Balance of payments
- A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a calendar year.
- Balance of trade
- Net flow of goods (exports minus imports) between two countries.
- Balance on goods and services
- Netting of transaction balances, including the net amount of payments of interest and dividends to foreign investors and investments, as well as receipts and payments resulting from international tourism. Also known as Trade Balance.
- Balance sheet
- Also called the statement of financial condition, it is a summary of a company's assets, liabilities, and owners' equity.
- Balance sheet exposure
- See: Accounting exposure.
- Balance sheet identity
- Total assets = Total liabilities + Total stockholders' equity.
- Balanced budget
- A budget in which the income equals expenditure. See: budget.
- Balanced fund
- An investment company that invests in stocks and bonds. The same as a balanced mutual fund.
- Balanced mutual fund
- This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock, and bonds. The same as a balanced fund.
- Balloon interest
- In the context of serial bond issues, the elevated coupon rate on bonds with late maturities.
- Balloon maturity
- Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a sinking fund requirement.
- Balloon Payment
- The final (large) payment that repays all the remaining principal and interest of a partially amortized or unamortized loan. See: Bullet.
- The document distributed at the annual meeting to shareholders of record who wish to vote their shares in person.
- Baltic Dry Index (BDI)
- An index that tracks the price of transporting dry bulk cargo like cement, coal, iron ore, and grain on bulk freighters. As many of these commodities are raw materials that go into production of finished goods, the BDI is often taken to be an indicator of economic growth and production. The index is maintained by the London-based Baltic Exchange.
- Bank-based corporate governance system
- Organization of a supervisory board so that it is dominated by bankers and corporate insiders.
- Bank anticipation notes (BAN)
- Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for projects that will eventually be funded long
term through the sale of a bond issue.
- Bank collection float
- The time that elapses between when a check is deposited into a bank account and when the funds are available to the depositor, during which period the bank is collecting payment from the payer's bank.
- Bank discount basis
- A convention used for quoting bids and offers for Treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield, based on a 360-day year.
- Bank draft
- A draft addressed to a bank.
- Bank holding company
- A company that owns or has controlling interest in two or more banks and/or other bank holding companies.
- Bank Insurance Fund (BIF)
- A unit of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) that provides deposit insurance for banks excluding thrifts.
- Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
- An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which serves
as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks,
the Bank of Japan, and the US
Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it now monitors and collects data on international
banking activity and promulgates rules concerning international bank regulation.
- Bank Investment Contract (BIC)
- Interest guaranteed by the bank in a
portfolio over a specific time frame with
a specific yield.
- Bank line
- Line of credit that a bank grants to a customer.
- Bank Letter of Credit Policy
- Standards allowing banks to confirm letters of credit by foreign banks supporting the purchase of US exports.
- Bank loan
- Usually refers to a loan or a line of credit expended to a corporation from a traditional bank. Also see: Leveraged loan
- Bank note
- A term used synonymously with paper money or currency issued by a bank. Notes are, in effect, a promise to pay the bearer on demand the amount stated on the face of the note. Today, only the Federal Reserve Banks are authorized to issue bank notes, i.e. Federal Reserve notes, in the United States.
- Bank of England (BoE)
- The central bank of England.
- Bank of Japan (BoJ)
- The central bank of Japan.
- Bank regulation
- The formulation and issuance by authorized agencies of specific rules or regulations, under governing law, for the conduct and structure of banking.
- Bank run (bank panic)
- A series of unexpected cash withdrawals caused by a sudden decline in depositor confidence or fear that the bank will be closed by the chartering agency, i.e. many depositors withdraw cash almost simultaneously. Since the cash reserve a bank keeps on hand is only a small fraction of its deposits, a large number of withdrawals in a short period of time can deplete available cash and force the bank to close and possibly go out of business.
- Bank trust department
- Bank department that deals with estates, administers trusts, and provides services such as estate planning advice to its clients.
- Bank wire
- A computer message system linking major banks. It is used not for effecting payments, but as a mechanism to advise the receiving bank of some action that has occurred, e.g., the payment by a customer of funds into that bank's account.
- Banker's acceptance
- A short-term credit investment created by a nonfinancial firm and guaranteed by a bank as to payment. Acceptances are traded at discounts to face value in the secondary market. These instruments have been a popular investment for money market funds. They are commonly used in international transactions.
- Banking Delay
- Time required for processing and clearing a check through the banking system.
- An agreement between a company engaged in a takeover bid and a bank that the bank will not finance the bid of another acquirer.
- Inability to pay debts. In bankruptcy of
a publicly owned entity, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from the stockholders to the bondholders.
- Bankruptcy code
- Laws governing bankruptcy proceedings for corporations, municipalities, and individuals. Enacted through the U.S. Federal Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978.
- Bankruptcy cost view
- The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other benefits from leverage so that the
optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt
- Bankruptcy proceedings
- Legal proceedings covered by Bankruptcy Code. The proceedings could result in liquidation or reorganization of the firm.
- Bankruptcy risk
- The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.
- Bankruptcy view
- The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from financing entirely with debt.
- Slang for one million dollars.
- Barbell strategy
- A fixed income strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated at two extremes. For example, a portfolio manager invests in short and long duration bonds but not in the intermediate duration bonds.
- Barefoot Investor
- A popular Australian radio program focused on teaching young people financial literacy.
- Barefoot pilgrim
- A slang term for an unsophisticated investor who has lost everything on the stock market. Not to be confused with Barefoot Investor.
- Bargain hunter
- In the context of general equities, purchaser who is extremely selective in the price sought on a transaction.
- Bargain-purchase-price option
- Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market value when the lease expires.
- Economic and market data that represent an overall trend. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is an example of a stock market barometer.
- BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)
- A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional
investors applying performance attribution analysis to evaluate their money
- Barrier options
- Option contracts that remain dormant until a trigger point (the barrier price) is reached, at which point the call or put option is activated, and results either in a long or short options position, or in the automatic exercise of an options position.
One example is an up-and-in call. Assume an exercise price of $50 and a barrier price of $53. If the stock stays below $53, the call option cannot be exercised. If the stock price reaches the $53 barrier price, the holder then has a call option on the shares at $50. These are exotic options.
- Barron's confidence index
- Index measuring the ratio of the average yield on 10 top-grade bonds to the average yield on 10 intermediate-grade bonds. The discrepancy between high-rated top-grade bonds and low-rated bond yields establishes a measure that is indicative of investor confidence.
- The trading/exchange of goods or services without using currency.
- A technical analysis tool.
A chart pattern depicting the period when
the supply and demand of a certain stock are
in relative equilibrium, resulting in a narrow trading range. The merging
of the support level and resistance level.
- Base currency
- Applies mainly to international equities. Currency in which gains or losses from operating an international portfolio are measured.
- Base interest rate
- Related: Benchmark interest rate.
- Base market value
- The average market price of a group of securities at a specific time. Used for the purpose of indexing.
- Base period
- A particular period of time used for comparative purposes when measuring economic data.
- Base probability of loss
- The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return. Related: Value at risk.
- Base rate
- British equivalent of the US prime rate.
- Basel I
- Agreement concluded among country representatives in 1988 in Basel, Switzerland to develop standardized risk-based capital requirements for banks across countries. The Accord is also known as 1988 Basel Accord and it primarily focused on credit risk and is now viewed as outdated. Basel II is currently in the process of implementation and Basel III is currently under development.
- Basel II
- An update of Basel I, Basel II was published in June 2004. The revised accord aimed to improve the consistency of capital regulations internationally, make regulatory capital more risk sensitive, and promote enhanced risk-management practices among large, internationally active banking organizations. Generally speaking, with Basel II, the greater risk to which the bank is exposed, the greater the amount of capital the bank needs to hold. However, critics of Basel II say that the revised accord failed to regulate certain risk transfers, such as securitization or transfer of risk to unregulated parts of holding companies.
- Basel III
- Describes the third version of the Basel Accords agreed upon by 27 countries on September 12, 2010. Among the highlights was the increasing of Tier 1 capital from 2% to 4.5% and the addition of a buffer of 2.5%. The assets that qualify for capital were also redefined. The full implementation of the accord is not due until 2023.
- Basic balance
- In a balance of payments,
the basic balance is the net balance of the combination of the current account and the capital account.
- Basic business strategies
- Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.
- Basic IRR rule
- Accept the project if IRR is higher than the discount rate; reject the project if it is lower than the discount rate. It is wise to also consider net present value for project evaluation.
- The price an investor pays for a security plus any out-of-pocket expenses. It is used to determine capital gains or losses for tax purposes when the stock is sold. Also, for a futures contract, the difference between the cash price and the futures price observed in the market.
- Basis point
- In the bond market, the smallest measure used for quoting yields is a basis point. Each percentage point of yield in bonds equals 100 basis points. Basis points also are used for interest rates. An interest rate of 5% is 50 basis points higher than an interest rate of 4.5%. Sometimes referred to as BPS, BIPS, and pronounced "Bips"
- Basis price
- Price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.
- Basis risk
- Unexpected changes in the basis between the placing and the lifting of a hedge. Basis risk is in excess of convergence.
- Basis trade
- A trade that takes a view on the difference between two financial instruments. For futures contract, the difference between the cash and the futures price of an instrument.
- Applies to derivative products. Group of stocks that is formed with the
intention of either being bought or sold all at once, usually to perform index arbitrage or a hedging program.
- Basket credit default swap
- A credit derivative contract that provides a payoff when any of the multiple reference entities default. The contract specifies the number of defaults after which the payoff is generated, based on which the instrument is classified as first-to-default CDS, second-to-default CDS or more generally nth-to-default CDS.
- Baskets of Listed Depositary Receipts
- Nasdaq's fund family made of four funds that will track indexes composed of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) of foreign companies.
- Basket options
- Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing foreign exchange market rate or at a prearranged rate of exchange. Multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows frequently use basket options because it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each of the currencies that make up the basket.
- Basket trades
- Related: Program trades.
- Bayseian inference
- An alternative method of reasoning whereby the observer has a prior belief about a hypothesis and that belief is updated after observing the data.
- BD form
- An SEC document required of brokerage houses that outlines the firm's finances and officers.
- BDS Statistic
- A statistic based upon the correlation integral which examines the probability that a purely random system could have the same scaling properties as the system under study. See: Correlation Integral.
- Boston Exchange Automated Communication Order-Routing Network (BEACON)
- This system permits the automatic execution of trades based on the current stock prices on the consolidated markets at any of the US securities exchanges.
- An investor who believes a stock or the overall market will decline. A bear market is a prolonged period of falling stock prices, usually by 20% or more. Related: bull.
- Bear CD
- A bear CD pays the holder a fraction of any fall in a given market index.
- Bear hug
- Often used in risk arbitrage. Hostile takeover attempt in which the acquirer offers an exceptionally large premium over the market value of the acquiree's shares so as to as to squeeze (hug) the target into acceptance.
- Bear market
- Any market in which prices exhibit a declining trend. For a prolonged period, usually falling by 20% or more.
- Bear raid
- In the context of general equities, attempt by investors to move the price of a stock opportunistically by selling large numbers of shares short. The investors pocket the difference between the initial price and the new, lower price after this maneuver. This technique is illegal under SEC rules, which stipulate that every short sale must be on an uptick.
- Bear rally
- A temporary surge in stock markets while the primary market trend is bearish.
- Bear spread
- Applies to derivative products. Strategy in the options or futures markets designed to take advantage of a fall in the price of a security or commodity. A bear spread with call options is created by buying
a call option with a certain strike price and selling a call option
on the same stock with a lower strike price (with the same expiration date). A bear spread with put options is where an investor buys a put with a high strike price and sells a put with
a low strike price. With futures, the investor sells the nearby contract and purchases the next out contract. All of these strategies are designed to profit from a fall in the underlying asset's price.
- Bear trap
- The predicament facing short sellers when a bear market reverses its trend and becomes bullish. The assets continue to sell in anticipation of further declines in price, and short sellers then are forced to cover at higher prices.
- Bearer bond
- Bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and delivering them to the paying agent.
- Bearer form
- Describes issue form of security not
registered on the issuing corporation's books,
and therefore payable to its bearer. See also: Bearer bond; coupon bond.
- Bearer share
- Security not registered on the books of the issuing corporation and thus payable to possessor of the shares. Negotiable without endorsement and transferred by delivery, thus avoiding some of the control associated with ordinary shares. Dividends are payable upon presentation of dividend coupons, which are dated or numbered. Applies mainly to international equities.
- Words used to describe investor attitude. A bearish investor believes
that a particular asset or the market as a whole will decline in value.
- Beating the gun
- In the context of general equities, gaining an advantageous price in a trade through a quick response to market developments.
- Before-tax contributions
- The portion of an employee's salary contributed to a retirement plan before federal income taxes are deducted; this reduces the individual's gross income for federal tax purposes.
- Before-tax profit margin
- The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.
- An international trade policy of competitive devaluations and increased protective barriers that one country institutes to gain at the expense of its trading partners.
- Beggar-thy-neighbor devaluation
- A devaluation that is designed to cheapen a nation's currency and thereby increase its exports at the expense of other countries. Devaluation can also reduce a nation's imports. Such devaluations often lead to trade wars.
- Behavioral finance
- An important subfield of finance. Behavioral finances uses insights from the field of pyschology and applies them to the actions of individuals in trading and other financial applications.
- Used for listed equity securities. At the same price but entered after your order/interest, such as on the specialist's book. Antithesis of ahead of you.
- Beige book
- Official name for the Beige book is Summary of Commentary on Current Economic Conditions. It is a report published by the Fed before FOMC meeting (eight times a year) and is used to inform the members on changes in the economy.
- Signal on a stock exchange to
indicate the open and close of trading.
- Bellwether issues
- Related: Benchmark issues.
- Below par
- Less than the nominal or face value of a security.
- The performance of a predetermined set of securities, used for comparison purposes. Such sets may be based on published indexes or may be customized to suit an investment strategy.
- Benchmark error
- Use of an inappropriate proxy for the true market portfolio.
- Benchmark interest rate
- Also called base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on the comparable-maturity treasury security that was most recently issued (on-the-run).
- Benchmark issue
- Also called on-the-run or current-coupon issue or bellwether issue. In the secondary market, the benchmark issue is the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.
- Used for listed equity securities. 1) Behind; 2) Lower in price.
- Beneficial Owner
- As used for most purposes under the federal securities laws. A beneficial owner of stock is any person or entity with sole or shared power to vote or dispose of the stock. This SEC definition is intended to include a holder who enjoys the benefits of ownership although the shares may be held in another name.
- Beneficial ownership
- Often used in risk arbitrage. Person who enjoys the benefits of ownership even though title is in another name. (Abused through the illegal use of a parking violation.)
- Term used to refer to the person who receives the benefits of a trust or the recipient of the proceeds of a life insurance policy.
- Property left to an heir under the terms of a will.
- Bermudan option
- An option that can be exercised at a set number of times (unlike European options, which can be exercised only at the expiration date and American options, which can be exercised any time).
- Best's rating
- A rating A.M. Best Co. assigns to insurance companies based on the company's ability to meet its obligations to its policyholders.
- Best efforts
- A high standard of undertaking, but nevertheless excusable in the
event of a force majeure.
- Best-efforts sale
- A method of securities distribution/underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or fixed-price sale or bought deal, in which the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (and holds any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).
- Best-interests-of-creditors test
- The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization must receive at least as much as if the debtor were liquidated.
- The measure of an asset's risk in relation to the market (for example, the S&P500) or to an alternative benchmark or factors. Roughly speaking, a security with a beta of 1.5, will have move, on average, 1.5 times the market return. [More precisely, that stock's excess return (over and above a short-term money market rate) is expected to move 1.5 times the market excess return).] According to asset pricing theory, beta represents the type of risk, systematic risk, that cannot be diversified away. When using beta, there are a number of issues that you need to be aware of: (1) betas may change through time; (2) betas may be different depending on the direction of the market (i.e. betas may be greater for down moves in the market rather than up moves); (3) the estimated beta will be biased if the security does not frequently trade; (4) the beta is not necessarily a complete measure of risk (you may need multiple betas). Also, note that the beta is a measure of co-movement, not volatility. It is possible for a security to have a zero beta and higher volatility than the market.
- Beta equation (security)
- The market beta of a security is determined as follows: Regress excess returns of stock y on excess returns of the market. The slope coefficient is beta. Define n as number of observation numbers.
- [(n) (sum of [xy]) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of y)]/
- [(n) (sum of [xx]) ]-[ (sum of x) (sum of x)]
- where: n = # of observations (usually 36 to 60 months)
- x = rate of return for the S&P 500 index
- y = rate of return for the security.
- Related: Alpha
- Biased expectations theories
- Related: Pure expectations theory.
- The price a potential buyer is willing to pay for a security. Sometimes also used in the context of takeovers where one corporation is bidding for (trying to buy) another corporation. In trading, we have the bid-ask spread which is the difference between what buyers are willing to pay and what sellers are asking for in terms of price.
- Bid away
- Refers to over-the-counter trading. Bid from another dealer exists at the same (listed)
or higher (OTC) price.
- Bid-asked spread
- The difference between the bid and the asked prices.
- Bid bond
- A bid "performance" bond consisting of a small percentage (1-3%) of
the tender contract price, refunded to losers once the contract is awarded.
- Bid price
- This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask, offer.
- Bid-to-cover ratio
- The ratio of the number of bids received in a Treasury security auction compared to the number of accepted bids.
- Bid wanted
- Used in the context of general equities. Announcement that a holder of securities wants to sell and will entertain bids.
- A firm or person that wants to buy a firm or security.
- Bidding buyer
- In the context of general equities, a nonaggressive buyer who prefers to await a natural seller in the hope of paying a lower price.
- Bidding through the market
- In the context of general equities, aggressive willingness to purchase a security at a premium to the inside market. Contrasts with bidding buyer.
- Bidding up
- Moving the bid price higher.
- When a non-linear dynamic system develops twice the possible solutions that it had before it passed its critical level. A bifurcation cascade is often
called the period doubling route to chaos
because the transition from an orderly system to a chaotic system often occurs
when the number of possible solutions begins increasing, doubling each time.
- Bifurcation Diagram
- A graph that shows the critical points where bifurcation occurs, and the possible solutions that exist at that point.
- Big Bang
- The term applied to the liberalization in 1986 of the London Stock Exchange (LSE) when trading was automated.
- Big Board
- A nickname for the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Also known as The Exchange. More than 2,000 common and preferred stocks are traded. Founded in 1792, the NYSE is the oldest exchange in the United States, and the largest. It is located on Wall Street in New York City.
- Big Mac Index
- The Big Mac Index is published by the Economist as an informal way of measuring the Purchasing Power Parity between currencies by comparing the price of a Big Mac in one country (in its currency) with the price of a Big Mac in another country (in its currency). The index was first introduced in September 1986 and has been published annually by the Economist since then.
- Big picture
- To highlight trading interest due to the size of the trade.
- Big producer
- A successful broker who generates a large volume of commission. See Rainmaker.
- Big uglies
- Unpopular stocks.
- Bilateral Netting
- Bilateral netting - the consolidation of all swap agreements between two counterparties into one master agreement. The result is that if one counterparty bankrupts, that counterparty cannot seek to collect on any swaps that are in-the-money to them while at the same time refusing to pay out on any that are out-of-the-money. Instead, the master agreement sets out that in this event all swaps between the two counterparties will be netted; only then will the bankrupt company receive money, and then only if they are net in-the-money.
- Bill of exchange
- General term for a document demanding payment.
- Bill of lading
- A contract between an exporter and a
transportation company in which the latter agrees to transport the goods under
specified conditions that limit its liability. It is the exporter's receipt for the goods as well as proof that goods have been or will be received.
- Billing cycle
- The time elapsed between billing periods for goods sold or services rendered.
- Binary credit default swap
- Similar to a credit default swap except that there is a fixed dollar payoff in the event of default.
- Binary option
- An option where the payoff is a fixed amount of an asset or nothing at all.
- An amount of money paid to indicate good faith in a transaction before the transaction is completed.
- Binomial option pricing model
- An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can assume one of only two possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.
- A basis point or 1/100th of one percent. Sometimes called bips or bps.
- A cryptocurrency first proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. Bitcoin uses a specific technology called blockchain which prevents the double spending of any bitcoin and allows for unprecedented security. There are currently thousands of cryptocurrencies and tokens based on blockchain technology.
- Bi-weekly mortgage loan
- A mortgage loan on which interest and principal payments are made every half-month (total of 26 payments) as opposed to monthly payments. This results in earlier loan retirement.
- Black Friday
- A precipitous drop in a financial market . The original Black Friday occurred on September 24, 1869, when prospectors attempted to corner the gold market.
- Black Litterman Model
- An asset allocation model that allows portfolio managers to incorporate views into CAPM equilibrium returns and generate portfolios that are more diversified than those produced with plain mean-variance optimization.
- Black market
- An illegal market.
- Black Monday
- Refers to October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 508 points on the heels of sharp drops the previous week. On Monday, October 27, 1997, the Dow dropped 554 points. While the point drop set a new record, the percentage decline was substantially less than in 1987.
- Black-Scholes option-pricing model
- A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments. Uses the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the expected standard deviation of the stock return. Developed by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in 1973.
- Blackout period
- A period of time before the earnings release of a public company during which its directors and specific employees deemed insiders cannot trade the company’s stock.
- Blank check
- A check that is duly signed, but the amount of the check is left blank to be supplied by the drawee.
- Blank check offering
- An initial public offering
by a company whose business activities are undefined and therefore peculative.
- Blank Check Preferred Stock
- This is stock over which the board of directors has broad authority to determine voting, dividend, conversion, and other rights. While it can be used to enable a company to meet changing financial needs, its most important use is to implement poison pills or to prevent takeovers by placement of this stock with friendly investors.
- Blanket certification form
- See: NASD form FR-1
- Blanket fidelity bond
- SEC-required insurance coverage that brokerage
firms are required to have in order to cover fraudulent trading by employees.
- Blanket inventory lien
- A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.
- Blanket Mortgage
- A mortgage that covers at least two pieces of real estate as collateral for the same mortgage.
- Blanket recommendation
- A recommendation by a brokerage firm sent to all its customers advising
that they buy or sell a particular stock regardless of investment objectives or portfolio size.
- Blind pool
- A limited partnership that does not announce its intentions as to what properties will be acquired.
- Blind trust
- A trust in which a fiduciary third party has total discretion to make investments on behalf of a beneficiary while the beneficiary is uninformed about the holdings of the trust.
- Blitzkrieg tender offer
- In the context of a takeover, refers to a tender offer that is priced so attractively that the tender is completed quickly.
- Large quantity of stock or large dollar amount of bonds held or traded.
As a rule of thumb, 10,000 shares or more of stock and $200,000 or more worth
of bonds would be described as a block.
- Block call
- In the context of general equities, conference meeting during which customer indications and orders, along with the traders' own buy/sell preferences, are conveyed to the entire organization. See block list.
- Block house
- Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.
- Block list
- In the context of general equities, listing of stock the investment bank is looking for (wants to buy) or (wants to sell) at the beginning of the day, whether on an agency or principal basis.
- Block trade
- A large trading order, defined on the New York Stock Exchange as an order that consists of 10,000 shares of a given stock or at a total market value of $200,000 or more.
- Block trader
- A dealer who will take a position in the block trades to accommodate customer buyers and sellers of blocks. See: Dealer, market
- Block voting
- Describes a group of shareholders banding together to vote their shares in a single block.
- Think of blockchain as a database or a spreadsheet. But a really special spreadsheet. There's no centralized master copy. Instead, it's shared on many computers. It's special because you can only add to it. There's no editing of history. The database is divided into chronological sub-sheets. These are the blocks. The last line of any block summarizes all of the data in the block, and — and this is pretty important — appears as the first line of the next block. If anyone tries to edit a block, the last line will change and will not match the first line of the next block. The network sees this corrupted block and immediately replaces it. This ingenious trick makes it futile to rewrite history and guarantees an unprecedented degree of security. Blockchain was invented by Haber and Stornetta in 1991 but made famous in the Satoshi Nakamoto's bitcoin paper.
- Blocked currency
- A currency that is not freely convertible to other currencies due to exchange controls.
- Blocked funds
- Cash flows generated by a foreign project that cannot be immediately repatriated to the parent firm because of capital flow restrictions imposed by the host government.
- Blocker Corporation
- A blocker corporation is a type of C Corporaton. Tax exempt investors and foreign investors often set up offshore feeder corporation known as a blocker corporation when they invest in private equity or hedge funds in order to avoid US trade or business income tax.
- Blow-off top
- A steep and rapid increase in price followed by a steep and rapid drop.
This is an indicator seen in charts and used in technical analysis of stock price and market trends.
- The rapid sale of all shares in a new securities offering. See: hot issue.
- Blue list
- Daily financial publication featuring bonds
offered for sale by dealers and banks that represent billions of dollars in par value.
Also available on-line at www.bluelist.com.
- Blue-chip company
- Used in the context of general equities. Large and creditworthy company. Company renowned for the quality and wide acceptance of its products or services, and for its ability to make money and pay dividends. Gilt-edged security.
- Blue chip stocks
- Common stock of well-known companies with a history of growth and dividend payments.
- Blue-sky laws
- State laws covering the issue and trading of securities.
- Bo Derek stock
- High quality stock.
- Board broker
- Employee of the Chicago
Board Options Exchange who manages away from the market orders, which cannot be
- Board of Directors
- Individuals elected by the shareholders
of a corporation who carry out certain tasks established in the charter.
- Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
- The managing body of the Federal
Reserve System, which sets policies on bank practices and the money supply.
- Board room
- A room at a brokerage firm where its clients can watch an electronic board displaying stock prices and transactions. Also refers to the room where Board of Directors meetings take place.
- The return an investment manager is compared to for performance evaluation.
- Boiler room
- Used to describe place or operation in which unscrupulous salespeople call and try to sell people speculative, even fraudulent securities.
- Standard terms and conditions.
- Bollinger Bands
- Plus or minus two standard deviations where the standard deviations are calculated
historically in a moving window estimation. Hence, the bands will widen if the most recent data is more volatile. If the prices break out of the band, this is considered a significant move.
- Spanish for stock exchange.
- Bolsa de Commercio de Santiago (SSE)
- Chile's preeminent stock exchange.
- Bolsa de Valores de Rio de Janeiro (BVRJ)
- Brazil's second-largest stock exchange.
- Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (BOVESPA)
- The largest stock exchange in
- Bolsa Familia Program
- Direct translation is "Family Allowance", Bolsa Familia Program is a part of Brazilian governmental welfare program Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) launched by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Brazilian President 2003-2011). Bolsa Familia provides financial aid to low-income Brazilian families under the condition that their children attend school and are vaccinated. It is currently the largest conditional cash transfer program in the world.
- Used for listed equity securities. Block trading version of COLT.
- Bolt-on acquisition
- Bolt-on acquisition is a term in private equity. It is used when a PE backed company (Company A) acquires another company (Company B) as a "bolt-on" to enhance the value of Company A.
- Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)
- Largest stock exchange of India. See also: National Stock Exchange; Mumbai stock exchange.
- Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The US government, local governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.
- Bond agreement
- A contract for privately placed debt.
- Bond anticipation note (BAN)
- A short-term debt instrument issued by a state or municipality to borrow against the proceeds of an upcoming bond issue.
- Bond broker
- A broker on the floor of an exchange or in the over-the-counter market (OTC) who trades bonds.
- Bond Buyer
- A daily publication featuring many essential statistics and index figures relevant to the fixed income markets.
- Bond Buyer's municipal bond index
- A municipal bond price tracking index published daily by the Bond Buyer.
- Bond counsel
- An attorney who prepares the legal opinion concerning a municipal bond issue.
- Bond covenant
- A contractual provision in a bond indenture. A positive covenant requires certain
actions, and a negative covenant
limits certain actions.
- Bond crowd
- Members of the stock exchange
who transact bond orders on the floor of the exchange.
- Bond discount
- The difference by which a bond's market price is lower than its face value. The antithesis of a bond premium, which prevails when the market price of a bond is higher than its face value. See: Original issue discount.
- Bond-equivalent basis
- The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.
- Bond equivalent yield
- Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual effective yield.
- Bond fund
- A mutual fund that emphasizes incomeconsistent with risk, rather than growthby investing in corporate, municipal, or US government debt obligations, or some combination of them.
- Bond indenture
- Contract that sets forth the promises of a bond issuer and the rights of investors.
- Bond indexing
- Designing a bond portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.
- Bond market association
- An international trade association of broker/dealers
and banks in US government and federal agency securities, municipal securities, mortgage-backed securities, and money market securities.
- Bond mutual fund
- A mutual fund which primarily or exclusively holds bonds.
- Bond of Indemnity
- An insurance policy that indemnifies the corporation, the shareholder and the Transfer Agent against any and all claims arising from the replacement by the Transfer Agent of certificates lost or stolen.
- Bond option
- An option to buy or sell a bond by a particular date at a fixed price.
- Bond points
- A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $1 and equivalent
to 1% of the $100 face value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face or par value.
- Bond power
- A form used in the transfer of registered bonds from one owner to a different owner.
- Bond premium
- See: Bond discount
- Bond rating
- A rating based on the possibility of default by a bond issuer.
The ratings range from AAA (highly unlikely
to default) to D (in default). See: Rating,
- Bond ratio
- The percentage of a company's capitalization represented by bonds. The ratio is calculated by dividing the total bonds due after one year by that same figure plus all other equity. See: Debt-to-equity-ratio.
- Bond swap
- The sale of one bond issue and purchase of another bond issue
simultaneously. See: Swap; swap order.
- Bond value
- With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible. That is, the market value of the bond minus the value of the conversion option.
- A firm often has stockholders and bondholders. In a liquidation, the bondholders have first priority.
- A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed income portfolio, as well as the individual securities held in the portfolio. BONDPAR decomposes the return into the elements beyond the manager's control--such as the interest
rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations, and individual bond selection.
- Bonds Enabling Annual Retirement Savings (BEARS)
- Holders of BEARS receive the face value
of the bonds underlying call option, which is exercised by CUBS (an acronym for Calls Underwritten by Swanbrook). If the calls are exercised by CUBS, BEARS holders receive the total of the exercise price.
- Bon voyage bonus
- See: Greenmail.
- Charging a lot more for an asset than its worth.
- A banker or trader's positions.
- Book cash
- A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called ledger cash.
- Book to market
- The ratio of book value to market value of equity. A high ratio is often interpreted as a value stock (the market is valuing equity relatively cheaply compared to book value). This is the same as a low price-to-book value ratio. Value managers often form portfolios of securities with high book to market values.
- Book profit
- The cumulative book income plus any gain or loss on disposition of assets.
- Book runner
- The managing underwriter for a new issue. The book runner maintains the book
of securities sold.
- Book to bill
- The book-to-bill ratio is the ratio of orders taken (booked) to products shipped and bills sent (billed). The ratio measures
whether the company has more orders than it can deliver (>1), equal amounts
(=1), or less (<1). This ratio is of significant interest to investors/ traders in the high-technology sector.
- Book value
- A company's total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A company's book value might be higher or lower than its market value.
- Book value per share
- The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation (and not necessarily market valuation).
- Registered ownership of stock without the issuance of a corresponding stock certificate, as is the case with dividend reinvestment and direct purchase plans, employee plans and Direct Registration System issuances. Periodic statements of ownership are issued instead of certificates.
- Book-entry securities
- Securities which are not represented by paper certificates but are maintained in computerized records at the Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep computer records of the securities they own as well as those they are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, certificates reside in a central clearinghouse or are held by another agent. These securities do not move from holder to holder.
- Term used to describe the start-up of a company with very little capital.
- Creating a theoretical spot rate curve using one yield projection as the basis for the yield of the next maturity. Bootstrapping follows the work of Efron. It involves a Monte Carlo
- To obtain or receive money on loan with the promise or understanding that it will be repaid.
- Borrowed reserves
- Funds borrowed from a Federal Reserve Bank by member banks to maintain the required reserve ratios.
- Borrower fallout
- In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be closed will elect
to withdraw from the contract.
- Boston Stock Exchange
- The third oldest stock exchange in the United States being founded in 1834. Now known as NASDAQ OMX BX, it was previously known as BSE. NASDAQ OMX acquired the BSE in 2007.
- 1) Shorthand for bought. Antithesis of SL, meaning sold. 2) Also refers to a web-based algorithm (short for robot) that picks off key information that might be useful for trading.
- Refers to the base support level for market prices of any type. Also used in the context of securities to refer to the lowest market price of a security during a specific time-frame.
- Bottom fisher
- An investor seeking stocks that have fallen to prices at or near their bottom, which he or she believes will trend up in the future.
- Bottomline growth
- Growth in net profit. Also see topline growth.
- Bottom-up equity management style
- A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.
- Bought deal
- Security issue in which one or two underwriters buy the entire issue. Also known as a guaranteed or fixed-price sale; opposite of a best-efforts sale.
- A check returned by a bank because it is not payable, usually because of insufficient funds. Also used in the context of securities to refer to the rejection and ensuing reclamation of a security; a stock price's abrupt decline and recovery.
- French for a stock market.
- A small, specialized brokerage firm that
offers limited services and products to a limited number of clients. Antithesis
of financial supermarket.
- The actual physical location at a brokerage house or bank where securities or other documents are stored for safekeeping. Alternatively, a quotation
machine or battery march. Also known as 'the cage.'
- Box spread
- This strategy refers to a type of option arbitrage in which both a bull spread and a bear spread are implemented for an almost-riskless position. One spread is implemented using put options and the other is implemented with calls. The spreads may both be debit spreads (call bull spread vs. put bear spread) or both credit spreads (call bear spread vs. put bull spread).
- A term signifying the extent of an underwriter's commitment in a new issue, e.g., major bracket or minor bracket.
- Bracket creep
- The gradual movement into higher tax brackets when incomes increase as a result of inflation.
- Brady bonds
- Bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan.
- An operation in a foreign country incorporated in the home country.
- The percentage of assets or stocks advancing relative to those unchanged or declining. Also the number of independent forecasts available per year. A stock picker forecasting returns to 100 stocks every quarter exhibits a breadth of 400, assuming each forecast is independent (based on separate information).
- Breadth of the market
- In the context of general equities, percentage of stocks participating in a particular market move. Technical analysts say there
was significant breadth if two-thirds of the stocks listed on an exchange move in the same direction during a trading session. See: A/D line.
- A rapid and sharp price decline. Related: Crash.
- Break even
- The reduction of a project's net cash flow to zero by altering an input variable such as price or costs.
- Breakeven rate
- The difference in yield between inflation-protected and nominal debt of the same maturity. If the breakeven rate is negative it suggests traders are betting the economy may face deflation in the near future.
- Break price
- Used in the context of general equities. Change one's offering or bid prices to move to a more realistic, tight
level where execution is more feasible.
Often done to trim one's position, thus
"breaking price" from where the trades
occurred (if long, "break price" downward by a certain amount).
- Break-even analysis
- An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.
- Break-even lease payment
- The lease payment at which a party to a
prospective lease is indifferent between entering and not entering into a
- Break-even payment rate
- The prepayment rate of an MBS coupon that will produce the same cash flow yield (CFY) as that of a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon the prepayment rate that will produce the same cash flow yield (CFY) as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.
- Break-even point
- Refers to the price at which a transaction produces neither a gain nor a loss. In the context of options, the term has the additional definitions:
1. Long calls and short uncovered calls: strike price plus premium.
2. Long puts and short uncovered
puts: strike price minus premium.
3. Short covered call:
purchase price of underlying stock minus premium.
4. Short put covered by short stock: short sale price of underlying stock plus premium.
- Break-even tax rate
- The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering into and not entering into the transaction.
- Break-even time
- Related: Premium payback period.
- Breaking the syndicate
- Terminating an agreement among underwriters, specifically the investment banking group assembled to underwrite the issue of a security.
- A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its
previous high price) or a drop below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.
- For mutual funds,
the point at which the amount invested reduces the sales charge is called the "breakpoint." Each mutual fund may have several breakpoints; the larger the investment, the greater the discount. Note that the actual reduction in the sales charge is known as the "breakpoint discount". Also, the term "breakpointing" is sometimes used to refer to the offering of breakpoint discounts. The practice of soliciting mutual fund purchases just below the breakpoint (to earn more commissions) is considered unethical and in violation of NASD rules. See: right of accumulation.
- Breakpoint Sale
- For mutual funds,
this refers to the practice of soliciting mutual fund purchases just below the breakpoint (to earn more commissions). The practice is considered unethical and in violation of NASD rules.
- Breakup value
- See: Private market value.
- Breeden, Douglas T.
- Inventor of one of the foundational asset pricing models in finance, the consumption based capital asset pricing model. Chairman of Smith Breeden Associates, and former Dean of the Fuqua School of Business.
- Brent crude
- A type of oil sourced from the North Sea often used as a benchmark to price oil. The other well-known classifications are West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Dubai Crude, and OPEC Reference Basket.
- Bretton Woods Agreement
- An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.
- Bridge financing
- Interim financing of one sort or another used to solidify a position until more permanent financing is arranged.
- Bridge loan
- A short-term loan that is used until a company secures permanent financing or removes an existing obligation. A bridge loan provides an immediate cash flow. In venture capital, a bridge is usually a short term note (6-12 months) that converts to preferred stock.
- Bring it out
- In the context of general equities, "make stock available for sale
to indicated buyers."
- British Bankers Association (BBA)
- An association of banks and financial institutions operating in the U.K. The BBA calculates and publishes LIBOR rates.
- British clearers
- The large clearing banks that dominate deposit taking and short-term lending in the domestic sterling market.
- Generally referring to an index, it indicates that the index is composed of a sufficient number of stocks or of stocks in a variety of industry groups. See also: Narrow-Based.
- Broad Market
- Usually refers to indices such as the Wilshire 5000 that track the performance of 5,000 securities, rather than the more narrow measures such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500.
- Broad tape
- An expanded version of the ticker tape, which is displayed on a screen in the board room of a brokerage firm and shows constantly updated financial information and news.
- Broken up
- Used for listed equity securities. Prevented from executing a trade (committed to upstairs) due to exchange priority rules excluding one's order (e.g., higher bid/lower offer on floor, market order to satisfy).
- An individual who is paid a commission for executing customer orders. Either a floor broker who executes orders on the floor of the exchange, or an upstairs broker who handles retail customers and their orders. Also, person who acts as an intermediary between a buyer and seller, usually charging a commission. A "broker" who specializes in stocks, bonds,
commodities, or options acts as an agent and must be registered with the exchange where the securities are traded. Antithesis of dealer.
- Any person, other than a bank, engaged in the business of buying or selling securities on its own behalf or for others. See: Dealer.
- Broker loan rate
- Related: Call money rate.
- Brokered CD
- A certificate of deposit issued by a bank or thrift institution bought by a brokerage firm in bulk for the purpose of reselling to brokerage customers. A broker CD features
a higher interest rate, usually 1%
higher, and are FDIC insured and do not
usually have commissions.
- Brokered market
- A market in which an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.
- Brokers' loans
- Money borrowed by brokers from banks for uses such as financing specialists's inventories of stock, financing the underwriting of new issues of corporate and municipal securities, and financing customer margin accounts.
- Brought over the wall
- Compelling a research analyst of an investment bank to work in the underwriting department for a corporate client, therefore allowing for the transmission of insider information. Also called "Over
the Chinese wall".
- See: Spaceman
- Brussels Stock Exchange (BSE)
- Stock exchange that handles the majority of securities transactions in Belgium.
- Bubble theory
- A theory under which security prices sometimes move wildly above their true values, or the price falls sharply until the "bubble bursts". It is also possible for a bubble to deflate gradually.
- A detailed pro forma schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget.
- Budget authority
- Broad responsibility conferred by Congress that empower government agencies to spend federal funds. Congress can specify criteria for the spending of these funds. For example, it may stipulate that a given agency must spend within a specific year, number of years, or any time in the future. The basic forms of budget authority are; appropriations, authority to borrow, contract authority, and authority to obligate and expend offsetting receipts and collections. The period of time during which Congress makes funds available may be specified as one-year, multiple years or no year. The available amount may be classified as either definite or indefinite; a specific amount or an unspecified amount can be made available. Authority may also be classified as current or permanent. Permanent authority requires no current action by Congress.
- Budget deficit
- The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues.
- Slang for one million dollars.
- Bucket shop
- An illegal brokerage firm that accepts customer orders but does not attain immediate executions. A bucket shop broker promises the customer
a certain price, but waits until a price discrepancy is present and the trade is advantageous to the firm and then keeps the difference as profit. Alternatively, the broker may never fill the customer's order but keep the money.
- Budapest Stock Exchange
- Established in 1864, the major securities market of Hungary.
- Budget surplus
- The amount by which government revenues exceed government spending.
- Buenos Aires Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Comercio de Buenos Aires)
- Argentina's major securities market.
- Build a book
- In the context of general equities, develop customer orders to gather demand/supply in order to make a bid or an offer. Also refers to a commissioned salesperson amassing a 'book' of regular clients.
- Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Approach
- One of the two main approaches in fiancing the large-scale infrastructure projects. Contrary to State-Build-Own-Operate (SBOO) Approach, BOT Approach awards a project to a project company that operates the project for twenty-five to thirty-five years before it is transferred back to the government. BOT Approach is similar to Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Approach.
- Build Own Transfer
- The transfer of a project back to the party granting the concession,
either with or at no cost.
- Builder buydown loan
- A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buydown the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period
of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the
interest rate amount for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for
the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).
- Builders' All Risk
- A standard construction insurance package.
- A short-lived stock price increase. Synonymous with bubble.
- Bulge bracket
- A tier of firms in an underwriting syndicate that have the highest participation level. See: Mezzanine bracket.
- An investor who thinks the market will rise. Related: Bear.
- Bull-bear bond
- Bond whose principal repayment is linked to the price of another security. The bonds are issued in two tranches: In the first tranche repayment increases with the price of the other security, and in the second tranche repayment decreases with the price of the other security.
- Bull CD
- A bull CD pays its holder a specified percentage of the increase in return on a specified market index while guaranteeing a minimum rate of return.
- Bull market
- Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.
- Bull spread
- A spread strategy used in options and futures trading that
is designed to capitalize on expected price appreciation. A bull spread using call options is created by buying
a call option on an asset with a certain strike price and selling a call
option on the same asset with a higher strike price (same expiration date). A bull spread with put options is created by buying a put option with a low strike and selling a put option with a high
strike price (same expiration date). Less frequently, the bull spread is implemented by buying the nearby futures contract and selling the next out contract.
- Bulldog bond
- Foreign bond issue made in London.
- Bulldog market
- The foreign market in the United Kingdom.
- A one-time repayment, often after little or no amortization of the loan. See: Balloon Payment.
- Bullet contract
- A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related: Window contract.
- Bullet loan
- A bank term loan that calls for no amortization.
- Bullet strategy
- A fixed income strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly concentrated at one point on the yield curve.
- Bullion coins
- Metal coins consisting of gold, silver, platinum, or palladium that are
actively traded. Some examples include the
American eagle and the Canadian maple leaf. Their price is directly connected
to the underlying price of their metal.
- Word used to describe an investor's attitude. Bullish refers to an optimistic outlook, while bearish means a pessimistic outlook.
- Bump-up CD
- A certificate of deposit granting the owner the right to increase its yield one time for the remaining term of the CD. The power is exercised by the owner in the event of an interest rate hike.
- Describes the act of traders combining round-lot orders for execution at the same time. Bunching can also be used to combine odd-lot orders to save the odd-lot differential for customers. Also used to refer to the pattern on the ticker tape when a series of trades for a security appear consecutively.
- Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienst-leistungsaufsicht (BaFin)
- Germany's supervisory authority for the German financial markets. German financial regulator.
- Bundling, unbundling
- Creation of securities either by combining primitive and derivative securities into one composite hybrid or by separating returns on an asset into classes.
- Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
- A research agency of the U.S. Department of Labor; it compiles statistics on hours of work, average hourly earnings, employment and unemployment, consumer prices and many other variables.
- Burn rate
- Used in venture capital financing to refer to the rate at which a startup company expends capital to finance overhead costs prior to the generation of positive cash flow.
- Depletion of a tax shelter's benefits. In the context of mortgage backed securities it refers to the percentage of the pool that has prepaid their mortgage.
- Business combination
- See: Merger
- Business Combination laws
- These laws impose a moratorium on certain kinds of transactions (e.g., asset sales, mergers) between a large shareholder and the firm for a period usually ranging between three and five years after the shareholder's stake passes a pre-specified (minority) threshold. These laws are in place in more than half the U.S. states.
- Business cycle
- Repetitive cycles of economic expansion and contractions. The official peaks and troughs of the US cycle are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, MA.
- Business day
- A day in which financial markets are open for trading.
- Business failure
- A business that has terminated operations with a loss to creditors.
- Business risk
- The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.
- Business segment reporting
- Reporting the results of the separate divisions or subsidiaries of a business.
- Busted convertible
- Related: Fixed income equivalent. Mainly applies to convertible securities. Convertible bond selling essentially
as a straight bond. Assuming the issuer is "money good," or will continue to meet credit obligations, such issues can be highly attractive since the price makes virtually no allowance for the bond's call on the common stock, when most such issues usually carry premiums.
- Bust-up takeover
- A leveraged buyout in which the buyer sells off the assets of the target company to repay the debt that financed the takeover.
- In the context of equities, a firm with two divisions may split into two companies and issue original shareholders two shares (one in each of the new
companies) for every old share they have.
- Butterfly shift
- A nonparallel shift in the yield curve involving the height of the curve.
- Butterfly spread
- Applies to derivative products. Complex option strategy that involves buying a call
option with a relatively low strike price; buying a call option with a
relatively high strike price; and selling two call options with an intermediate strike
price. Essentially, this is a bear call spread stacked on top of a bull call spread. One can also do this with puts. The investor buys a put with a low strike, buys a put at high strike and sells two
puts at intermediate strike price.
The payoff diagram resembles the shape of a butterfly.
- To purchase an asset; taking a long position.
- Buy-and-hold strategy
- A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of assets from the time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon. Opposite of active strategy.
- Buy-and-write strategy
- An options strategy that calls for the
purchase of assets and the writing of covered call options on them.
- Buy the book
- An order typically from a large institutional investor to a broker to purchase all the shares available at the market from the specialist and other brokers and dealers at the current offer price. The book refers to the record a specialist kept before the advent of computers.
- Buy hedge
- See: Long hedge
- Buy in
- To cover, offset, or close out a short position. Related: Evening up, liquidation.
- Buyin management buyout (BIMBO)
- A form of leveraged buyout in which the bidding team comprises members of the incumbent management team and externally hired managers, often alongside a third-party private equity investor.
- Buy limit order
- A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated price or lower. Related: Sell limit order.
- Buy minus order
- In the context of general equities, rare market or limit order to buy a stated amount of a stock, provided that the price to be obtained is not higher than the last sale if the last sale is a minus or zero-minus tick, and is not higher than the last sale minus the minimum fractional change in the stock if the last sale is a plus or zero-plus tick. (If limit, then the buy cannot occur above the limit, regardless of tick.)
- Buy on the bad news
- Buying stock shortly after a price drop resulting from bad news from the company. Investors believe that the price has hit bottom and will trend upward. See: Bottom fisher.
- Buy on close
- Buying at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.
- Buy on margin
- Borrowing to buy additional shares, using the shares themselves as collateral.
- Buy on opening
- Buying at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.
- Buy order
- An order to a broker to purchase a specific quantity of a security.
- Buy-side analyst
- A financial analyst employed by a nonbrokerage firm, typically one of the larger money management firms that purchases securities on its own account.
- Buy stop order
- A buy order not to be executed until the market price rises to the stop price. Once the security has broken through that price, the order is then treated as a market order. Also known as a suspended market order. Often used to protect against loss on a short sale.
- Buy them back
- Used for listed equity securities. "Cover my short position.
- Buy write
- See also Covered Call.
- The covering of a short position by purchasing a long contract, usually resulting from the short sale of a commodity. See: Short covering, stock buyback. Also used in the context of bonds. The purchase of corporate bonds by the issuing company at a discount in the open market. Also used in the context of corporate finance. When a firm elects to repurchase some of the shares trading in the market.
- A lump sum payment made to the creditor by the borrower or by a third party to reduce the amount of some or all of the consumer's periodic payments to repay the indebtedness. In the context of project financing, refers to a one-time payment out of liquidated damages to reflect cash flow losses from sustained underperformance.
- Buyer credit
- A financing provided to a buyer to pay for the supply of goods or services usually by an exporting country or by the supplier company.
- Buyer's market
- Market in which the supply exceeds the demand, creating lower prices. Antithesis of seller's market.
- Buyers/sellers on balance
- Used for listed equity securities. Indicates that at a given time (usually before the opening of a stock market or at expiration time), there are more buyers than sellers in the marketplace, usually with market orders. See: Imbalance of orders.
- Buying climax
- A rapid rise in the price of a stock resulting from heavy buying, which usually creates the market condition for a rapid fall in the price.
- Buying the index
- Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the same return.
- Buying power
- The amount of money available to buy securities, determined by adding the total cash held in brokerage accounts and the amount that could be spent if securities were margined to the limit.
- Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy out is effected with borrowed money.
- Buyout firm
- See Private Equity firm.
- Rules and practices that govern management of an organization.
- Bylaw Amendment Limitations
- These provisions limit shareholders' ability to amend the governing documents of the corporation. This might take the form of a supermajority vote requirement for charter or bylaw amendments, total elimination of the ability of shareholders to amend the bylaws, or the ability of directors beyond the provisions of state law to amend the bylaws without shareholder approval.
- Bypass trust
- An irrevocable trust that is designed to pay trust income (and principal, if needed) to an individual's spouse for the duration of the spouse's lifetime. The bypass trust is not part of the beneficiary spouse's estate and is not subject to federal estate taxes upon his/her death.
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Copyright © 2018, Campbell R. Harvey. All Worldwide Rights Reserved. Do not reproduce without explicit permission.
[Version 26 November 2019.]
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