The Life of King Henry the Fifth
Act II. Scene II.
Southampton. A Council-chamber.
Enter EXETER, BEDFORD, and WESTMORELAND.
Fore God, his Grace is bold to trust these traitors.
They shall be apprehended by and by.
How smooth and even they do bear themselves!
As if allegiance in their bosoms sat,
Crowned with faith and constant loyalty.
The king hath note of all that they intend,
By interception which they dream not of.
Nay, but the man that was his bedfellow,
Whom he hath dull’d and cloy’d with gracious favours,
That he should, for a foreign purse, so sell
His sovereign’s life to death and treachery!
William Shakespeare (1564–1616). The Oxford Shakespeare. 1914.
We will look behind the curtains of "spin" and "public relations" (from promotion through advertising to propaganda, misinformation, disinformation and lies) at the "dark side" of international relations, at networks of trust, secrecy and deception as practiced by state-level actors. From these observations we will gain insights into current national events and even human interrelationships at the more personal level of the individual. By understanding theories and practices of propaganda, "purposive action" and "psychological operations" (PSYOPS), which has been recently "sanitized" by renaming it "military information support operations" (MISO), practiced by sovereign nations, we are better prepared to recognize it in our daily lives. Although we will focus on American sources, we do so only because that material is more accessible to us. Nowhere is this information so freely available than in the United States. We will look at some of the major players and their tradecraft. Many large and smaller states are equally matched in these skills. The technologically advanced countries like the UK, China, Russia and the US are masters at spycraft, but Fidel Castro from his small island in the Carribean has recently been credited as history's most skilled spymaster despite his low tech methods. We don't anticipate that there is a single "theory" of this subject and consequently we will make use of many case studies. If there are "theories," they will likely arise from research on the emergence of networks of trust, secrecy and deception which co-evolved through competition and cooperation towards maintaining inequalities of power and wealth. We will attempt to build some models of these processes from which computer simulations can be written.
I hope you will think about these and add some of your own questions as you consider how to approach each of your investigations, research projects and challenges:
“Espionage is the back door of diplomacy;
it makes the world a safer place.”
Safety for whom? How? Why?
What are the pros and cons of revealing once-secret activities of the clandestine world?Who wins? Who looses?
What insights does the intelligence community provide us with for the discovery of the “ground truth” and the furtherance of social science?
If the intelligence community produces "actionable ethnography," how might we characterise the ethnographies produced by anthropologists? What do these disciplines have in common: history, political science, public policy, sociology and anthropology?
Might we build some conceptual models of the cultural processes at work that we could then turn into computer simulations? How can we best describe, understand and explain these complexities?
"Once the orchestra starts to play, all you can do is hum along..."
Victor Ostrovsky's, THE OTHER SIDE OF DECEPTION, Harper, New York. 316 (1995).
"I used to think that the brain was the most wonderful organ in my body.
Then I realized who was telling me this."
Emo Phillips, Neuropsychology: Clinical and Experimental Foundations
"Some truth there was, but dash'd and brew'd with lies;
To please the fools, and puzzle all the wise."
Absalom and Achitophel by John Dryden (1631–1700)
Things we've done or will probably be doing.
Tentative notes from previous semester are grayed-out.
FOR NEXT WEEK: CRYPTOLOGY
BEFORE WE GET TOO COMPLICATED, TRY YOUR HAND AT DECRYPTING SOME MONOALPHABETIC SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS:
Go to our "Cryptology" webpage, scroll down and click on "Encrypted Postcards and Letters" or simply click here. You will find 10 postcards designated A through L. DECRYPT the messages. You do not need letter frequency tables to do this. B, F, G, H, I and J should be the easiest to solve. A, C and D have invented their own substitution alphabets so they'll be a bit more challenging. E, K and L will be the most difficult since they are not in English. Unless you know the language they are likely to be written in you might not be able to decipher them. You can team up to work on E, K and L but try to solve the rest as individuals. If you click on A you will see that I have rewritten the coded message much more clearly. In solving these challenges you should probably print out the images and make notes on them. Please turn in your solutions complete with a brief description of your methods and all your notes and scribblings. Remember, the people who wrote these probably did not finish school, did not learn "mid-Western English" andwere probably not good spellers. Put yourself into the minds of the writers. Look at the images on the post cards. Who are they addressed to? What do you suppost the message is about?
FOR NEXT WEEK: STEGANOGRAPHY
A message that is clearly in code invites the observer to cryptanalyze it. Another approach to keeping information secret is to hide it. BRING some examples to class next week, specifically:
a) Important government identification documents like passports, green cards, visas, drivers' licenses, credit cards.
b) Foreign currency (paper money) that you may have.
c) Color laser printer copies with ample white-space (unprinted areas) along with the location, make, model and serial number of the machine and the time and date printed. (Look in the trash).
Screening: TRUIMPH OF THE WILL (120m) begins at 10:45.
From the back cover:
"Leni Riefenstahl's classic piece of historical filmmaking, filmed during the 1934 Nazi Party Rally in Nurenberg, Germany, is considered by many to be one of the most important and controversial films ever made... Money was unlimited, so Riefenstahl was eating and sleeping in the editing room with hundreds of thousands of feet of film for almost a full year. All the shots... are carefully constructed... Sets were specially built to accommodate cameras... so Riefenstahl could edit together a film that would manipulate imagery and seduce the mind... Until her death in 2003, Reifenstahl was under fire for her personal relationship with Adolph Hitler, spending her life in the shadow of collaborating with the Nazi Party."
A previours assignment (for your interest only):
In the run-up to the presidential election, both sides make use of skilled propagandists (a.k.a. public relations specialists) to garner votes. Please locate a political film for each of Obama and Romney and provide a commentary on the sophistication with which each is targeted to send a message to a specific audience. Prepare this in a format containing active links to the films under analysis and burn your commentary onto a CD.
FOR NEXT WEEK:
"Why We Fight is a series of seven documentary films commissioned by the United States government during World War II whose purpose was to show American soldiers the reason for U.S. involvement in the war. Later on they were also shown to the general U.S. public to persuade them to support American involvement in the war. Most of the films were directed by Frank Capra, who was daunted yet also impressed and challenged by Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda film Triumph of the Will and who worked in direct response to it. The series faced a tough challenge: convincing an only recently non-interventionist nation of the need to become involved in the war and ally with the Soviets, among other things. In many of the films, Capra and other directors spliced in Axis powers propaganda footage going back twenty years, and recontextualized it so it promoted the cause of the Allies." (from Wikipedia)
At the bottom of the Wikipedia page, under "External Links," you will find these films for download from the Internet Archive. Find three or four (3-4) scenes from the series that closely mimic those filmed by Leni Riefenstahl. Prepare to PRESENT them in class next week (note at what times to start and stop the film) along with your WRITTEN ANALYSIS (compare and contrast) of the psychological methods used.
SELECTED PARTICIPANT PRESENTATIONS:
"Triumph of the Will" and "Why We Fight."
Be sure to turn in hard copy of your analysis.
MONOALPHABETIC SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS:
Monoalphabetic substitution ciphers on post cards continued until next week when we will look more deeply into cryptology. FOR OUR NEXT MEETING, please continue working on them and note that I've added three more post cards (M, N, O) to the challenge which are different from the previous ones. On card M, note the quote marks and the date. The last two (N and O) are written to the same person which should provide you with some cribs...
You may find it useful to use the Word pattern finder. For example, if you see the string of symbols for "!@#$%%!^$@*$" enter the pattern "123455164284" (use a new digit to represent each new letter you encounter) in the right-most box and check of "Standard." It will return the words with that pattern, in this instance only one word, "intelligence".
Examining your documents for secret information.
Hiding information in images (next week).
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING, print one sheet from the Perkins (or Bostoc) color printer. Whatever you decide to print, make sure there is significant "white space" (where there is no printing). On that sheet, write your name, the date and time you made the print, the machine make, model and serial number (you will find that on the underside of the glass cover). With this information we will attempt to decrypt the "Yellow Dot Code".
Currency Detection (next week).
INTELLIGENCE AND ANTHROPOLOGY:
Are they confederates or enemies?
Do we want "actionable knowledge" or "cultural appreciation?"
Working towards a "science of culture?"
Marvin Harris' "cultural materialism."
10:30 SCREENING: Intelligence in the raw, screening: "Spy School: Inside the CIA Training Program," a special feature accompanying THE RECRUIT (15m).
11:00 SCREENING: Errol Morris: The Fog of War:
from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (2003, 107m).
Wikipedia synopsis. Sony Pictures synopsis. Discussion with Errol Morris.
Take note of his:
Eleven lessons of war.
Ten additional lessons.
Eleven lessons from the Vietnam war.
In many respects, his lessons related to understanding others
echo the methods of anthropologists. In others, his actions do not.
CURRENT EVENTS vs.
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING, apply some of McNamara's insights to a current international crisis or issue. The situation in Syria immediately comes to mind but feel free to address any other. As an anthropologist, these lessons seem particularly salient (with some reasons suggested in parentheses):
1) Empathize with your enemy (consider differences in perceptions, beliefs and customs).
2) Rationality will not save us (the world is too complex to be understood in traditional ways).
3) Study situations in retrospect and entertain counterfactuals (his visits to Cuban and Vietnamese leaders after the conflicts).
4) "Never answer the question that was asked of you. Answer the question that you wish had been asked."
Other lessons may be more germane to your interests, so feel free to pursue those. Please prepare to present a 5-minute, well thought out presentation and turn in a typewritten report (3-4 pages single spaced). A PowerPoint may be an effective to present your typewritten paper. Use the format of a typical presentation at a conference: a longer written paper to hand out to interested parties, with highlights of your argument illustrated by a short presentation. Please rehearse your presentation and stay within the 5- minute limit (although at a conference you'll probably have 10 minutes). This will be good practice for your future careers.
If you can suggest an answer to the following question, please let me know.
McNamara mentions that the US was on the brink of nuclear war on three occasions:
1) The Cuban Missle Crisis (a lucky guess).
2) The Vietnam War (faulty intelligence in the Gulf of Tonkin).
3) What was the third occasion?
THE FOG OF WAR applied to a current, or near current, event.
9/11, Syria, Iraq?
(Please don't forget to turn in hard-copy of your analyses.)
TRIUMPH OF THE WILL and WHY WE FIGHT, some comparisons.
MONOALPHABETIC SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS:
Post Cards, participant presentations and discussions...
(Please don't forget to turn in hard-copy of your solutions.)
Some useful resources:
Word pattern finder
English letter frequency
English digraph frequency
English trigraphs and other patterns
POLYALPHABETIC SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS:
Alternating among a small number of alphabets.
The M-94, a system of 25 fixed random alphabets.
The M-138A, a system of 25 changeable random alphabets.
Vigenère cipher on our simulations pages...
One Time Pads (OTPs), The Conet Project and Cuban numbers.
SOME REAL MACHINES:
Have a look at our collections pages...
I will put this booklet on SAKAI.
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING, discuss the ways in which the instituional "culture" of the CIA effects its ability to collect, analyze and deliver intelligence estimates up the chain of command. How is information "filtered" from its source to a finished product ready to be handed to our decision makers. What "biases" does Dr. Johnston present and how might they be lessened without introducing additional "biases" of a different nature? How might they be related to some of McNamara's lessons? How might they be related to interpreting current international events? In short, this is the general problem of how, as scientists, we can discover the truth without introducing our own biases and preconceptions.
Please reference your citations, 3-4 pages, single spaced, and illustrations if they are relevant.
!!! WE NEED YOUR "AGREEMENTS" TODAY !!!
Please turn in your critique of Rob Johnston's "Ethnography."
SATURDAY'S FIELD TRIP TO THE NATIONAL CRYPTOLOGIC MUSEUM AND THE INTERNATIONAL SPY MUSEUM:
* A box lunch will be provided to you on boarding the bus.
* Complete the "Doodle Poll" to place your order for the evening meal.
* Bring whatever other snacks and drinks you may feel you need.
* Bring money: both have gift shops and the ISM an excellend book shop.
* Bring your camera. Ttake compelling photographs (propaganda).
* Bring your cell phone just in case... (Mine is 919-308-6539.)
* Bus departs at 6:00 a.m. sharp, across from Wilson, East Campus.
* There may be a secondary pickup from West Campus.
The Conet Project
Spy Numbers Stations on Shortwave Radio
STRADDLING CHECKERBOARD CIPHER (SCC)
Double encryption using the SCC and non-carrying addition.
The coordinates are given in the order: row first, then column.
EAVESDROPPING ON CUBA:
We set up our AR5000 Communications Receiver in "the Plaza" off Union Drive to hear what Radio Havana, Cuba has to say...
Screening: TOP SECRET: NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY, with Johnny Depp (50 min).
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING:
1) Turn in one documented sample printout from the Perkins color printer.
2) On SAKAI, provide some feedback on your visit to the two museums.
3) *Complete the decryption of the Che Guevara "straddling checkerboard cipher."
4) *Complete the encryption using the "four cypher systems."Aspinwall - Straddling Checkerboard - Nicolas Bion (the simulation is now online) - Vigenère
5) On SAKAI, what can you discern about the "Aspinwall Cipher?"
Saturday, 21 September - TENTATIVE SCHEDULE
6:00 a.m. SHARP! leave Duke University
on the bus
11:00 a.m. arrive National Cryptologic Museum, Fort Meade, Maryland. (lunch)
2:00 p.m. leave National Cryptologic Museum, Fort Meade, Maryland.
3:00 p.m. arrive International Spy Museum, Washington, D.C.
6:00 p.m. leave International Spy Museum, Washington, D.C. (dinner)
on the bus (screening BREACH).
11:00 p.m. arrive Duke University.
In front of the ISM
Our last visit to the NCM (see also Facebook)
You must print, sign and turn in this AGREEMENT as soon as possible:
No signed agreement; no trip.
PLEASE UPLOAD FIELD TRIP PHOTOS TO YOUR SAKAI DROP BOX:
* I will upload the Spy Museum group photo and many of yours to our website.
A BINARY "CODE" FOR TEXT:
* Ciphers = the replacement of letters with other characters.
* Codes = the replacement of words and phrases with other characters.
* Decimal, Binary and Hexadecimal representations of quantities ("codes") using the Windows/Accessories/Calculator set to View/Programmers.
* ASCII "encodings" charts by Charles and Tektronix.
* ASCII is the standard "encoding" for Word and Notepad .txt files.
* Hiding ASCII text in image (and sound) files.
* Using SynEdit and HexEdit software (in the ISIS-170 folder).
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING:
Using the "speckles" images at the bottom of our webpage:
or any other appropriate image, hide your name and some text of your choice inside a .bmp (bitmap) image and upload it to your SAKAI DROP BOX.
For extra credit, encode your name in ASCII using the low-order bit of each pixel's triplet. (This could be quite tedious since it requires changing 8 pixel values for each character in your name.) I may write some software to do this for you in the weeks ahead.
FOR OUR NEXT MEETING:
Eisenhower warned against the "military, industrial, congressional complex."
Do some empirical research online towards mapping each state's current "stake" in this complex. How can that "stake"or investment be measured? Perhaps in $$$, jobs or votes? How is that "stake" protected by politicians, community action and "public relations" (advertising and propaganda). Please provide specific contemporary evidence.
2-3 pages hard copy plus whatever references and visual graphics (e.g. maps and charts) are relevant.
Given what we've learned about the games people, groups and nations play, what problem might reasonably we attack in class?
An International consortium has been formed to study the financial crisis: CRISIS – Complexity Research Initiative for Systemic InstabilitieS. The economic models they are using are quite complex. We might, however, begin by looking at the slip-sliding definition of the "dollar" from Colonial times to the present day: Specie (gold and silver), funding the American revolution with the Continental dollar, the paper promises of private banks,
funding the Civil War with U.S. Banknotes, from demand notes payable in silver and gold or secured by bonds to legal tender ("fiat money") and the issuance of new forms of currency in our money supply.
More on cryptology and hiding messages
in images and other computer files.
Caroline's Micky Mouse scanned at 600 dpi.
How to develop the dots in Photshop:
Open the image.
Select: Window / Channels.
Make only the Blue Channel visible.
Blow up the image of the dots until you see several clear repeats.
Do an Image / Adjust / Levels to increase the contrast.
Do an Alt / Print Scrn to capture what you see.
(Create a new image; you will no longer need the previous one.)
Do a File / New and then an Edit / Paste to create a black-and-white copy.
Use the pencil tool to create one clear image of the pattern.
Using the Horizontal Type Tool enter your name and the pertinent data.
Crop the image as necessary.
Do a File / Save and upload it to your SAKAI dropbox.
Color copier and color printer yellow dot codes.
Inspired in part by Errol Morris' interview with Robert McNamara in FOG OF WAR,
director Dror Moreh has produced in, THE GATEKEEPERS, interviews with six former heads of the Shin Bet,
Israel's Secret Service in charge of terrorism.
For next week:
Compare and contrast the evolution of the experiences, assumptions, views, contentments and regrets held by two of these men, up to their present-day "lessons learned." Your job is not to damn or praise them, but to "channel them" and get inside their heads. 2-3 pages, double-spaced, hard copy.
Save a digital copy of this assignment for later.
"The Mole" as originally aired on Dateline 03/05/01:
A short documentary on the career and arrest of Robert Hansen, which inspired the theatrical movie BREACH.
FAIR GAME (the book)ion SAKAI:
Valerie Plame, author of Fair Game: My Life as a Spy, My Betrayal by the White House and Joe Wilson, author of "The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir," as portrayed by Naomi Watts and Sean Penn in FAIR GAME.
For Next Week:
Plame's writing was heavily redacted by the CIA. To counter that, the publisher hired Laura Rozen to fill in the blacked-out portions. Team up to examine the content in Valerie's writing along with the parallel content in Laura's. I would like you to prepare Valerie's account, with Laura's with that of the film makers. The purpose of this challenge is:
A) To compare and contrast these three accounts of the same situations, how do they differ and why (who is the audience?)
B) To catalog the players in the same way that the Shin Bet and any other intelligence agency would compile dossiers and we might wish to "channel" the principals for a play or a simulation.
Your team breakdown of the chapters must include the correlated Afterword and the film.
FAIR GAME (the movie)
Valeria Plame and Joe Wilson provide a voice-over commentary as a
feature on the DVD. Discussion on Wikipedia
Screening: MUNICH and the tradecraft of assassination.
Compare it to the Dubai Assassination in recent news.
We will later make a comparison to Victor Ostrovsky's book.
The Kidon, MOSSAD death squads.
Steven Spielberg and Victor Ostrovsky.
Recent operations in the news...
Full video part 1, part 2 and part 3.
For next week, nothing new, just turn in the previous challenges:
FAIR GAME and CAPTAIN PHILLIPS.
Valerie Plame & Sarah Lovett, BLOWBACK.
"Blowback," a definition.
Chapter by chapter comparison of accounts in:
b) Main text by Valierie Plame
c) Chapter by chapter afterword by Laura Rozen.
Do the accounts differ? Why?
What was redacted? Why?
Film director's licence? Why?
1: Joining the CIA: Jacquie Schindler, Alex Schade. (Rozen 1: Path to the CIA.)
2: ##### Tour: Mark Carribine. (Rozen 2: Athens Tour.)
3: #############: Xiaohan Cai, Steven Demers. (Rozen 3: Becomming a NOC.)
4: Love... Misfit Toys: Anisha Khemlani, Rebecca Porter. (Rozen 4: Working in the Island of Misfit Toys.)
5, 6: Motherhood...: Sandra Maragkopoulou, Shanice McLean. (Rozen 5: Road to Iraq.)
7,8: Niger, Shock & Awe: Lauren kane, Max Friedauer, Caroline Ren. (Rozen 5: Road to Iraq.)
9: Exposed: Caroline Taylor, Jessica Ordax. (Rozen 6: Exposed.)
10-13: Scandal, Indictment: Heather Seeley, Sarah Collins, Rachel Barry, Brooke Shelton.
14-16: Life, Alice, Farewell: Caitlin Cleaver, Ian McMahon
The Aspinwall Cipher: Captains John Aspinwall and his son (in-law) Lawrence Kortright, merchant/privateers. (PowerPoint)vs
FOR NEXT WEEK:
Hold on to your paper on the film CAPTAIN PHILLIPS.
Add 1-2 pages of research based upon the following synopsis:
Kurt Albaugh, THE RETURN OF THE PRIVATEERS.
Respond to the claim that piracy is "trades dark double."
SCREENING: FAREWELL (111 minutes).
READING: FAREWELL (posted on Sakai)
CHALLENGE: FAREWELL, book vs. film comparisons (due November 6)
FOREWORD & INTRODUCTION: everyone.
CHAPTERS 1-4: Alex Schade, Jacquie Schindler (?)
CHAPTERS 5-8: Sandra M, Shanice M (?)
CHAPTERS 9-12: Jessica Ordax, Xiaohan Cai (written)
CHAPTERS 13-16: Mark Carrabine, Max Friedauer (written)
CHAPTERS 17-20: Heather Sealey, Steven Demers (written)
CHAPTERS 21-24: Lauren Kane, Caroline Ren (written)
CHAPTERS 24-28: Rachel Barry, Brooke Shelton (?)
CHAPTERS 29-32: Sarah Collins, Caroline Taylor, Anisha Khemlani (oral)(
CHAPTERS 33-35: Ian McMahon, Caitlin Cleaver (written)
CHALLENGE: FAREWELL, book vs. Film comparisons (due today).
1) Those with an oral presentation, please lead on.
2) Those with a written report, please give us a quick follow-up.
PIRATES & PRIVATEERS:
A foreign service perspective, by Alex.
Looking back at the privateers in the American Revolution, by Nick.
DVD: BATTLE OF ALGIERS, (121 minutes). A training film for both sides: insurgents and security forces. The star of the film, Saadi Yacef was one of the leaders of Algria's National Liberation Front during his country's war of independence. He is currently a Senator in Algeria's Council of the Nation." (source Wikipedia),
FOR NEXT WEEK: BATTLE OF ALGIERS.
What lessons can you draw from this film about the strategies and tactics of the current struggles in the Middle East? Please be specific and give examples. 2-3 pages, double-spaced, hard copy.
FOR NEXT WEEK: A brief course project proposal (diagram, outline, synopsis). This could be any topic of your choosing, or an analysis of the capture of Jonathan Pollard or Ana Montes (two of the books for this course). One page, hard copy.
If you're really ambitious, you might work on putting together the design and pseudocode for a computer simulation consisting of agents who can:
sense -> think -> act
perceive -> process beliefs, goals and plans -> and take action
in an application like Vector Flocking Polygons..
other Intelligence Practices
DISCUSSION: Captain Phillips will be on campus Friday. Free tickets are available from me or at the ticket office in Bryan Center.
DISCUSSION: Course research project topics.
Let's each of us field an idea for a course topic. You might peruse our Website or SAKAI resources where you'll find several once TOP SECRET publications on propaganda and psyops. What ever topic you choose, treat it as a topic that we might include in next years' course, along with a plan for turning it into an active and interesting challenge.
ISIS or dISdIS
disInformation Science & disInformation Studies:
HANDS ON: Intelligence practices.
I'll bring in some items that you may recognize. Look them over. What do each of these practices have to do with intelligence? Sign up as an individual or team for one of the practices listed to the right. Do some quick research in class and present your findings to the rest of us. One or two might serve as inspiration for a course project.
FOR NEXT WEEK: Prepare and present a brief, but highly visual, report on that practice, then and NOW, in class as a PowerPoint, etc. Treat that practice as one that we might include in next years' course, along with a plan for turning it into an active and interesting challenge. Please turn this in burned onto a DVD.
- Military Information Support Operations (MISO)
- Smart-Dust, RFID
- Escape & Evasion Maps
- Secret Tactical Maps
- Escape & Evasion Paraphernalia
- Operation Cornflakes
- Black Propaganda
- Propaganda leaflets: Japan vs. Allies
- Propaganda leaflets: Germany vs. Allies
- Propaganda leaflets: North Vietnam vs. U.S.
- Camouflage, Decoys, Deception
- Sandboxes and Sandtables (fly to 38°15'58.40"N, 105°57'01.33"E)
PRESENTATIONS: Last week's intelligence practices topics.
FOR NEXT WEEK: The once restricted monograph, TARGET ANALYSIS AND MEDIA IN PROPAGANDA TO AUDIENCES ABROAD, includes a chapter (11) on "Psychological Warfare in the Total Frame of Purposive Action." It's among our SAKAI Resources. The military looks at culture from the perspective of "actionable ethnography" in order to impose "purposive action." In contrast, many anthropologists insist on producing "non-actionable" ethnography in order to protect their subjects. A science of culture would necessarily have to negotiate those two goals. Compare and contrast the perspectives on culture process as detailed in TARGET ANALYSIS and anthropological perspectives on culture in light of competing goals. If you cannot find a science of culture perspective, look Marvin Harris' CULTURAL MATERIALISM (an excerpt is also on SAKAI). 2-3 pages, double-spaced, on paper.
November 27 Thanksgiving Holiday.
December 3 Last day of class...
Please take time to fill out these forms and add suggestions of your own at the bottom.
Final Project Presentations
Please turn in a carefully thought out project with:
Your word.doc, PowerPoint.ppt and other media files burned into a disk, and that disk in a paper sleeve.
Your word.doc should also be printed out on paper.
Embellish your cover sheet with an illustrative image and an executive summary (everything you have done and have to say in a nut-shell).
Tuck all of these materials into a plastic sheet-protector (see picture above) and turn it in on presentation day.
Please prepare a much shorter presentation to give in class.
You want to "hook" your audience with a "teaser" (like Hollywood does), so use some of what you've learned about propaganda. Think of movie-trailers for inspiration.
You could probably talk for an hour on the research you have done, but in order to present your material to the class quickly, I would suggest that you make a second, shorter, presentation and rehearse the timing.
There are many of us, and I'd like each of us to see the breadth of your research.
!!! No Final / Happy Holidays !!!